- Published: October 31, 2021
- Updated: October 31, 2021
- University / College: Université de Montréal
- Level: Undergraduate
- Language: English
- Downloads: 43
Quiz Q Functionalists identified the primary role of education as generating a social solidarity and imparting specialist skills. The functionalists contend that a society requires a sense of cohesion and thus creating consensus. Notably, social life and collaboration would be difficult because every person would follow their egocentric needs (Anderson et al., 2014, p. 145).
On the other hand, Marxists hold that education does not give values about society as a whole but rather it offers values that profit the ruling class, thus creating inequality (Anderson et al., 2014, p. 151).
In bureaucratic structures, organizational strategy decisions are organized and controlled by the top management level thus being able to rationalize the entire decision making process (Cunliffe, 2008, p. 78-81). Additionally strategic decision making process is fast since there are few people involved in the process (Luhman & Cunliffe, 2013, p. 83-88).
On the other hand, bureaucratic structure discourages innovation and creativity in an organization and gives diminutive scope of autonomous thinking (Cunliffe, 200, p. 76-91).
The scientific management theory holds that the most efficient technique of accomplishing an assignment and the selection, motivation and development of workers can be scientifically determined. The employees are not allowed to choose their tasks. On the other hand, the human relations theory focuses on the welfare of the employees, their values and contributions (Luhman & Cunliffe, 2013, p. 140-44).
Both scientific management theory and human relations theory focus on cooperation among workers and motivation and equal division of labor.
The left wing ideologies are the progressive views that look to the future and purpose to assist those who cannot aid themselves and believe in equality. Left wing supports corporation and inheritance taxes and the redistribution of wealth.
The right wing ideologies are that the more productive people should not subsidize the less productive people in the nation. The right wing people believe that they should not pay for other people’s health service or education. They advocate for abolition of inheritance tax.
Industrial capitalism implies a social and economic system where industry, capital and trade are privately operated and controlled for profits (Luhman & Cunliffe, 2013, p. 96). It is typified by increase in the use of machinery to sustain economic stability through its production process, routine work assignments and multifaceted separation of tasks between and within the work progression (Cunliffe, 2008, p. 92).
Over the past few years, aspects such as increasing size of business units, increasing competition and the split-up of ownership from management have resulted to an augmentation in the need for professional managers. The role and functions of a manager have presently been quite specialized. In this regard, management has attained a position where everything is managed professionally. A profession can be described as an occupation that consists of people with specialized knowledge from whom other people seek advice and other services and whose entry is regulated by a representative body (Drucker, 1998, p. 46-52). Therefore, a profession requires specialized knowledge where the systematic body of knowledge that can be employed for the advancement of the professionals. Every professional must make thoughtful attempts to achieve expertise in the principles and techniques required. Similarly, a manager must have the commitment to achieve expertise in the science of management (Drucker, 1998, p. 58-72).
Additionally, a profession requires formal training and education. There are countless universities and institutions that offer training and education on management. Notably, no one can achieve a profession without undergoing a prescribed course. In essence, a Chief Accountant cannot audit accounts if he or she has not attained a degree as required by the management body (Drucker, 1998, p. 66-69).
A profession is a source of revenue, but the primary motivation for professionals is to serve the community. Similarly, managers are not only accountable to the owners of the business but also to the society and community and, therefore, his or her actions are affected by social values and norms (Drucker, 1998, p. 70-72).
A profession also has a representative association that regulates the actions of the professions. For instance, the All India Management Association has an established code of conduct for managers and oversees the standards of competence for managers (Drucker, 1998, p. 79).
Notably, management can be regarded as a profession since it satisfies some of the requirements of a profession.
Cunliffe, A. L. (2008). Organization theory. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Drucker, P. F. (1998). Peter Drucker on the profession of management. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press.
Handerson, A., Taylor, H., & Logio, K. (2014). Sociology: The Essentials (8th ed.). Cengage Learning.
Luhman, J. T., & Cunliffe, A. L. (2013). Key concepts in organization theory.