- Published: October 31, 2021
- Updated: October 31, 2021
- University / College: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
- Level: Undergraduate
- Language: English
- Downloads: 10
Application to Motivation Theories al Affiliation Hackman’s and Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model has a sound structure that gives it numerous applications in today’s organisations. However, its universal application faces limitations due to a number of factors. The first is the fact that it is based on a number of basic assumptions that employee motivation, satisfaction, and work performance depend on the three named psychological states, which are on the other hand determined by the fundamental job dimensions. It also does not fully focus on the association between job characteristics and outcomes, and the critical psychological states pointed out by Hackman and Oldham, are not necessary links to outcomes. In addition, the model does not focus on agent feedback, dealing with others, and time pressure, which are also important job characteristics. Due to changes in organisations and the environment, application of motivation has moved away from psychology to engineering. Today, approaches to job design depend on different scientific disciplines including engineering and psychology. Mechanistic approaches are applied to job design in the areas of work simplification and time and motion study, which have their basis in industrial engineering. Money matters to some people more than others, and this has made it a motivator in current management. However, to other people, money does not matter so much; since factors such as the way employees are treated at their work places sometimes matter more than money. Despite these facts, money can act as a motivator to different kinds of employees, for example people in developed and underdeveloped nations for various reasons.
Keywords: Hackman’s and Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model, Motivation, Money, Employees, Organisations
According to Hackman and Oldham, experience of certain psychological states by individuals motivates them towards their jobs, and gives them job satisfaction. These psychological states include “experienced meaningfulness of work, experienced responsibilities for outcomes of the work, and knowledge of actual results of the work activities” (Grant, 2003, p. 110). The psychological states create a positive effect that boosts job motivation. However, the psychological states are only created when a job has skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and job feedback. Skill variety, task identity, and task significance promote employees experienced meaningfulness at work. A level of autonomy creates personal responsibility for the outcome of the work, and good job feedback increases knowledge of the actual results of work activities on the part of employees.
The Job Characteristics Model by Hackman and Oldham is based on a number of basic assumptions, and this creates limitations in its universal application. Although the model has a flawless structure, and it is true that job characteristics do play a part in determining outcome, it does not fully focus on the association between job characteristics and outcomes. The critical psychological states pointed out by Hackman and Oldham, do not necessarily links to outcomes. According to Burns, “other limitations of the JCT include the neglect of other important characteristics of jobs such as ‘time pressure’, ‘dealing with others’…….and ‘agent feedback” (2012, p. 38).
The world is continually changing, and so do the needs of organisations. This has led to the need for job redesign in organisations. Despite the fact that there is constant need for job redesigning and designing of new jobs, “jobs must be designed to fit the abilities of the individuals who hold the jobs, as well as their motivation” (Craighead & Nemeroff, 2004, p. 473). Changes in organisations and the environment influence employees and their productivity. In recent years, engineering has taken a primary role in advancing the study of management and organizations. Today, approaches to job design depend on different scientific disciplines including engineering and psychology. Mechanistic approaches are applied to job design in the areas of work simplification and time and motion study, which have their basis in industrial engineering. According to Jones, and Bray, effective utilization of multidisciplinary approaches to job design techniques “can improve many important outcomes, from efficiency to job satisfaction” (1991, p. 603).
People get employed in order to earn money. Money motivates some employees due to the fact that it matters more to them. It is due to this reason that money is currently viewed as a motivator. Apart from rewarding employees with trophies, there is need for employers to reward them with money. According to Lussier and Achua, “employees often leave one organisation for another to make more money. High compensation (pay and benefits) based on performance is a practice of successful organizations” (2010, p. 85).
As mentioned earlier, money matters to some people more than others. From this, it is clear that money does not matter much, to some people. Other factors such as the way employees are treated at their work places sometimes matter more than money. The ability of money to motivate is also limited, and it “does not necessarily motivate employees to work harder” (Lussier & Achua, 2010, p. 85). This is because with money increment employees reach a point where they get comfortable and fail to work harder to make more money.
Money can act as a motivator to different kinds of employees. According to Goel, “in some cases, money acts as a powerful motivator for an employee who is stressed and anxious for lack of money” (2008, p. 220). The physiological needs of workers in underdeveloped nations are only partially met, and this makes money a primary motivator for these people. For people in developed countries, money is able to satisfy needs at higher levels, such as recognition, achievement, power, and status, which make it a measure of success. Agarwal points out that “when a multi-millionaire continues to engage in money-making activities, he does so primarily to satisfy his need for power, status, achievement, etc.” (1982, p. 200).
Agarwal, R.D. (1982). Organization and Management. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.
Burns, Kenneth. (2012). Strengthening the Retention of Child Protection Workers: Career Preferences, Exchange Relationships and Employment Mobility. Bremen: Europaischer Hochschulverlag GmbH & Co. KG.
Craighead, W. Edward & Charles B. Nemeroff. (Eds.). (2004). The Concise Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Grant, Gerald G. (2003). Erp & Data Warehousing in Organizations: Issues and Challenges. Pennsylvania: IRM Press.
Jones, J. W., Steffy, Brian D. & Douglas Weston Bray. (1991). Applying Psychology in Business: The Handbook for Managers and Human Resource Professionals. New York: Lexington Books.
Lussier, Robert N. & Christopher F. Achua. (2010). Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill Development. Mason: South-Western Cengage Learning.