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Bilingual education in kindergarden

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Literature Review: Conclusion Conclusion In reviewing literature concerning the essence of bilingual education in the kindergarten with English as a second language, it was found that the biggest challenge facing research into the phenomenon is that bilingual education consists of more than one language in the UK due to the country’s diversity (Adesope et al, 2010: p215). It was also found that most kindergartens use the transitional and submersion models of bilingual education, in which L1 is either temporally supported or not integrated at all. International aspects of bilingual education were also reviewed with Canada, Australia, and the US especially being considered. Whereas the Canadian model has been successful, its success is tempered by the fact that little research has been done specifically on kindergartens with children of immigrants (Wren, 2013: p18). The Australian model is different to the UK’s as it does not seek to assimilate but to preserve language, in contrast to that in the US, which has insisted on English as the main language of instruction. The results in mainland Europe have been mixed at best, as minority languages are taught the native language (Creese & Blackledge, 2010: 429).
The review also identified important requirements for meeting the needs of EAL children, which was reported to be dependent on the kindergarten’s policy and how teachers implemented the policy to accommodate EAL students. Such policy involved making EAL children feel comfortable and communicating with their parents (De Lamo White & Jin, 2011: p618). With regards to the link between bilingual education and culture, the review found that teachers with a similar culture to EAL students can validate the children’s cultural identities, while those teachers who attempt to understand the EAL student’s culture can also offer culturally compatible instruction. For this latter group however, the mainstreaming of UK schools and teaching programs premised on mainstreaming have posed challenges. In reviewing literature on the advantages and disadvantages of bilingualism and bilingual education, bilingual education was found to improve overall linguistic ability. However, it also identifies the danger of increased disparities between immigrant children and native children, as well as delaying the former’s integration into UK society (Romaine, 1995: p36).
References
Adesope, O., Lavin, T., Thompson, T., & Ungerleider, C. (January 01, 2010) A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive Correlates of Bilingualism. Review of Educational Research, 80, 2, 207-245.
Creese, A., & Blackledge, A. (January 01, 2010) Translanguaging in the bilingual classroom: A pedagogy for learning and teaching? The Modern Language Journal (estados Unidos), 94, 1, 421-439
De Lamo White, C, & Jin, L. (2011) Evaluation of speech and language assessment approaches with bilingual children. Evaluation of Speech and Language Assessment Approaches with Bilingual Children. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. 46 (6), Pp. 613-627.
Romaine, S. (1995). Bilingualism. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Wren, Y., Hambly, H., & Roulstone, S. (2013) A review of the impact of bilingualism on the development of phonemic awareness skills in children with typical speech development. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 29, 1, 11-25.

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