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British airways

British Airways Introduction British Airways is part of the International Airlines Group (IAG). Its headquarters is in Waterside, Harmondsworth in the UK. It operates primarily in Europe and USA. London is the company’s principle location for its businesses with a significant presence in London city, Gatwick and Heathrow airports. It is one of the leaders in the category of premium international airlines. As of December 31, 2013, British Airways had employed 38,592 people. The company has a very strong brand image that gives it a significant competitive edge helping it grow in the domestic and international markets. The company has won several awards for best in customer service, the best airline, just to name a few (British Airways Plc SWOT Analysis, 2014, p. 4).
3. The Company uses a number of methods to motivate its workforce.
a. Explain the concept of motivation using two recognized models
1. Needs Hierarchy Model
This is the most recognized motivation model. Maslow suggested that in this model, people have a set of strong needs that are possible to arrange in a hierarchy. Once the motivation needs have been satisfied, they decline in importance. After a need has been satisfied another emerges to take its place. In addition, the lower needs must be satisfied before the upper level needs. The model states that an individual has five types of needs (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2009, p. 131).
1. The physiological needs – This is the desire for air, water, food and shelter comprising the lowest level in the hierarchy.
2. The security needs – comprises desire for stability, safety and absence of illnesses, pain or any threat.
3. The affiliation needs – This is the desire for love, friendship and feeling of belonging.
4. The esteem needs- These are the desires for achievement, respect, self-worth and recognition.
5. The Self-Actualization needs- This involves the employees becoming who they can be by realizing their full potential (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2009, p. 131).
2. Basic Expectancy Model
The expectancy model is based on four assumptions (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 2012, p.91).
1. Outcomes- first level outcomes refer to performance and the second level outcomes are the consequences in which the first level outcomes lead to (result of performance is some reward for attaining goal).
2. Expectancy – this is the strength of believing that a job-related effort will lead to specific performance levels. It is based on probabilities.
3. Instrumentality – this is the relationship between the first level outcomes (performance) and second level outcomes (rewards).it is also based on probabilities like the expectancy.
4. Valence- this is the strength of the employee’s preference for any particular reward or outcome. The first level outcome valence is the sum of the product of the associated second level outcomes and their instrumentalities. Thus, the first level valence depends on the extent to which the results are valuable in the second level outcomes. The valence can be either negative or positive (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 2012, p. 91).
b. Evaluate the methods The Company uses to motivate its workforce using one of the models you have used.
The logic of expectancy theory is that British Airways administration intervenes on the work situations to maximize expectancies, instrumentalities and valence that support organizational goals. To influence the expectancies, British Airways selects people with the appropriate abilities and skills, providing them with continuous professional development, supporting them with the needed resources and identifying clear performance goals. To accomplish this, British Airways makes the desired performance goals attainable. The administration makes it clear what is expected of the employees thus enabling them to attain the goals. To influence instrumentality, the administrators clarify the performance rewards relationships and then follow them through. To influence the valences, administrators identify the individual needs that are important to each individual and adjust the rewards to match the needs (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 2012, p. 92).
References
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British Airways Plc SWOT Analysis 2014, British Airways, PLC SWOT Analysis, pp. 1-8, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 October 2014.
Hellriegel, D., & Slocum, J. W. 2009. Organizational behavior. Mason, OH, South-Western Cengage Learning.
Lunenburg, F. C., & Ornstein, A. C. 2012. Educational administration: concepts and practices. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
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