Essay, 29 pages (7000 words)

Determining the concept of training management essay

The rapid evolution of technology and the constant changing of human mentality helped increase the number of vacant positions in companies. Due to this development nowadays there are jobs that a century ago people could not even dream of. This kind of dream jobs brought us to the next step of evolution. This evolution also affects the hospitality industry. The rate of job growth and job change in hospitality is among the most rapid of all; even the guests’ demands are changing daily. For this industry it is hard to keep up with the new technology and demands, and thus training is necessary.”While employee recruitment and selection are crucial to an organization’s success, they do not guarantee that employees will perform well. Organization must provide training to new employees to transform their high potential into high performance. “[Managing Hospitality Human Resources, Robert H. Woods, 2006:188]This chapter of the dissertation will determine the concept of training, what training means, how many types of training are used and the training objectives. After the concepts are determined the research will establishthe use of training in the hospitality industry,how many types of training are used in this industry and the main characteristics.

2.2. Determining the concept of training

According to the Collins English dictionary, the concept of Training is determined as “the process of bringing a person, etc, to an agreed standard of proficiency, etc, by practice and instruction” [Collins English dictionary, 2009]. Training can be associated with learning, educating and offering employees new information. The concept of training is based on educating somebody, gathering new skills in a specific field, learning new things, to bring a person to an agreed standard of proficiency. Since the technology evolves quickly and the human mentality changes radically, training had to be introduced to keep up with this rapid evolution.Training is usually conducted when employees have a skill deficit or when an organization changes a system and employees need to learn new skills, or every time the company recruits external personnel.

2.2.1 Identifying training needs

Before considering what techniques will be used to train the personnel, it may be useful to clarify why we actual need to learn, to develop new skills. The training need is also associated with the “performancegap”. The service performance gap is the discrepancy between the development of customer-driven service standards and actual service performance by company employees. Standards must be backed by appropriate resources (people, systems, and technology) and must be enforced in order to be effective. When the level of service delivery falls short of standards, it falls short of what customers expect as well. Narrowing the performance gap, by ensuring that all the resources needed to achieve the standards are in place, reduces the customer gap.One of the methods to narrow the performance gap is indentifying the training needs. Usually the reason for poor performance is lack of competence, “lack of knowledge or skills in someone who has the ability to acquire that knowledge or skill” [Steve Truelove, Training in practice, 2006:4]. Tom Boydell developed in 1976 a framework to understand the training needs. This framework distinguishes three types of needs:Organizational training needs are the ones that apply to the whole organization. They can be generated by a changes that have been made within the company (new products and technology is introduced, new legislation affects the organization, new managerial system, the ownership has been changed) or to produce some changes (productivity is low, morale of the employees is low, employees are customer-focused).Occupational training needsapply to a particular category of employees. It may be an aftermath of a wider organizational change, or it may arise for one group of workers in particular. This can also be generated by changes made that influences the organization ( new software packages for front office, new recipes introduced in the kitchen) and changes that are needed to increase the performance( middle managers are poor at solving problems, the waiters are to slow in taking orders from the guest, the bartender can’t keep up with the high level of coffee demand)Individual training needs may come in consideration to a specific individual as opposed to the whole category of employees. This kind of training needs can be produced by changes (one of the bartender is now responsible to make the inventory) or it can be used to generate changes (one of the waiters needs to sell more to keep up with his colleges).

2.2.2. The Training Cycle

Most professionals consider that training has to be viewed as a cycle rather than as a single event. The need for the training has to be determined, after that the training objectives are identified according to theestablished training criteria. The selection of the trainees is a step from this cycle, followed by pre-testing the trainees and choosing the training methods, implementing the training and at last evaluating the training program. If this cycle is respected then the company not only will reduce costs but the efficiency of the personnel will increase and so will the revenue. The training cycle can be seen in table 2. 1.Table 2.1 The training cycle by Robert H. Woods (2006:189) Developing needs assessments.

The first step in training is to determine the need of training. Experts typically identify four major factors to analyze: the organization, tasks and behaviours and individuals.Organization analysis.When the training program is developed for a specific department, how it affects the company as a wholehas to be taken in consideration. An example in the hospitality industry: if the servers are trained to use new abbreviations to write the guests’ orders and the cooks don’t have the same training, it will be a chaos. Each company has to incorporate its own management philosophy into its training programs. The personnel within the training process have to learn the company policies and the standards as well.Task and behaviour analysis.Every job is different, just like every person. The objective in the task and behaviour analysis is to determine which tasks best fitthe individual. The first step in this analysis is to conduct a job analysis. Job analysis, descriptions and specifications identify three critical elements for managers to consider before beginning any training program. These elements encompass the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary to perform the various task associated with the job.Individual analysis.This identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the employee performing that job. Sometimes training programs are designed for the entire departments, but there are situations when only specific employees benefit from training, for example for higher managerial positions. Conducting needs assessments

After the reasons are identified, we can examine methods of conducting the training. Below are listed the 12 methods that can be used in a training program. The methods are not necessarily related to each other, each of them has got its own advantages and disadvantages.Advisory committee. Typically it consists from mangers that review job skills and behavior demands and compare these to the current level of employee performance. These kinds of committees consist of different level employees (line-level and managerial) that can establish the best course of action for the company.Job descriptions and job specifications. Typically they are conducted by managers in a given department, but they can be helped by an advisory committee.Work sampling. An analyst is hired to observe the work, not performing it, and according to thata training program can be developed. It is more costly for the company, but it can be effective too.Job performance measurements. It is similar to work sampling, but in job performance measurements the analyst not only observes the job, but performs it. It is one of the least cost-effective, because of the time it takes and the amount of money spent on hiring the analyst.Attitude surveys. This refers to determining when training is required to improve the behavioral side of service. It can be also useful to pinpoint what employees like or dislike about their job, this provides an increase in employee satisfaction and reduces unwanted employee turnover.Performance appraisals. These identify every employee’sindividual needs of training.Skills Tests. This measures an employee’s ability to perform different tasks, and according to the results the training needs can be determined.Performance Documents. Reports pertaining to absenteeism, sales, guest complaints, commendations and productivity are some of the performance documents useful for pinpointing individual training needs.Guest feedback. Guests do not always complain so managers cannot rely on thisQuestionnaires. These can help the company because of the large amount of data collected throughout the company.Exit interviews. Personnel that are leaving the company can give useful information that can reduce turnover.Critical incidents. This method is particularly useful when case studies are used Designing the training program.

To create an effective training program, managers have to establish the training objectives, and then establish criteria to meet those objectives. Finally trainees that are fit for the company are vital to the firm’s success. Selecting employees and assessing their skills is important, because managers can forecast the results of training.Establishing training objectives.These fall into four general categories: reaction-based, learning-acquired, on-the job behaviours and results oriented. When developing training objectives, it is important that managers identify what they hope to accomplish in a clear and a measurable way.Establishing training criteria.The training program is successful only when the criteria are clearly outlined. Such criteria establish a benchmark for measuring what will be learned or gained from the training process.Selecting trainees.Trainees can be selected internally and externally, according to the needs of the organization.Pre-test trainees.Managers have to establish the current knowledge of the employeesand use this information as a base to develop a successful training program. Choosing training methods.

The training methods are grouped in the following categories: training for managers, training for non-managers and training for all employee levels.Training for managers:Case study training. Challenges participants to identify the problems and propose solutionsIn-Basket training. Presents a wide array of daily tasks and problems similar that a manager can found in their in-basket at work. It helps to determine what tasks can be delegated and the priority of the problemsConference training. Is similar to brain storming, in which a group of people try to solve a problem togetherBehavioral modeling. Takes advantage by actually showing a behavioral model to the participants to see how they act in certain situations and thus to instruct participants how to perform.Training for non-managers:On-the job training. One employee is asked to teach another employee some desired skill. The disadvantage of this is that being good at work does not mean that he is an effective trainer. Training can be conducted during business operations in actual work settingsLectures. The oral presentation of the information to the audience. It is cost-effective; however because of the lack of two-way communication the audience does not get the necessary information for a long timeCoaching / Mentoring. It is cost-effective because internal traineescan be used, such as managers or supervisors, and they can closely monitor the performance of the employees.Training for all employee levels:Job rotation. Involves moving trainees form one job to another. It is effective because in this way the employees see how work is performed in different jobs.Role-playing. Allows the participants to experience real life or exaggerated situations.Business games. A type of simulations through which participants learn how to deal with a variety of issues in a business environmentVestibule training. Is a simulation that allows performing the job off-site, in this waythe business is not affected, and trainees learn how to handle different situations.Team training. Is a team building exercise, where employees learn how to work together, and be more productive and effective as a team.Diversity training. As the work force becomes more and more multicultural, the personnel have to know how to handle these issues. Implementing the training Program

Some managers make the mistakes of developing the perfect training program, but they do not implement it, because of the costs and lack of time. But for the training to be effective and productive in the future it is not enough that the program is developed, it has to be implemented as well.Implementation of the training program can involve a variety of approaches, and sometimes creativity generates the best solution. Front desk agents could be allowed to play a hotel management game in slow times, in this way they learn something and have fun at the same time. The training materials should be presented as a learning experience, even though the employees consider the training process as an orientation program, they learn something new about how to perform their job, and about the company.A critical point to implement the training correctly would be the instructor, who has to be anexpert on the subject. Whatever questions asked, he should be able to answer them, and teach the trainees using his experience as well. Evaluating Training

One of the most important steps in the training program is to evaluate the outcome. After the program ended the employees can be evaluated periodically to see if the program was worthwhile or not. If the responses during the evaluation are negative, the training cycle starts from the beginning.The organization will need to know if the training and development activities are achieving the forecasted results. They are trying to establish the reliability and validity of training program. In some cases, like in the Food and Beverage department, results are more tangible ( the waiters learn how to carry three plates or the bartender learns how to make a good coffee), in others results are intangible ( Front Desk Agent learns to greet the guest with a big smile). The central point is to establish a relationship between the training methods used and some measure of performance, and this can only be achieved by assessing the trainees’ capability after the training has taken place.”We refer to internal validity when it is found that the training objectives are met after the trainees are assesses at the end of the training programme. On the other hand, external validity is achieved if after completing the training programme, the trainees’ performance is in line with the laid-down standard” (Human Resources Management, a concise analysis, Eugene McKenna and Nic Beech 2002:242)To evaluate the trainees at the end of the program a questionnaire like a test could be introduced to measure the level of understanding, and to help the future programs to achieve a higher level. Another way would be the “job behavioural level”, in which the outcome of learning could be evaluated by the manager or supervisor, in order to establish whether the trainee changed his behaviour or learned how to act according to the organization standards.

2.3 Establishing the use of training in the hospitality industry

The hospitality industry is one of the biggest industries available. The rapid evolution and dramatical changes that are happening within this industry are in one way forcing the managers to constantly train the employees.”Research on training needs is important, especially in the hospitality industry, which is known for its traditional approach in terms of human resource management.” (Paul A Whitelaw … [et al.], 2009)Managers are trying to develop a training program that will increase the productivity of the organizationin the future. In some cases this training program will provide positive results if it is followed correctly, but sometimes because of some internal issues, like high turnover or low budget, this is not possible.The training program within the training cycle can be adjusted easily in the hospitality industry.If the training cycle is followed and implemented, the costs can be reduced, and the results will be positive. This cycle fits every department in the industry: the food and beverage, rooms division, human resource, sales and marketing, etc.There are some reasons why a training program has to be implemented within the hotel, one of them is the hotel opening. In this situation the company has to train and educate the personnel because usually they are entry-level employees. This is the easiest way to train, because they do not have background information to what to compare the newly learned ones. From the company’s point of view this is easy because the personnel can enter this industry knowing the standards and policies within that specific company. Another advantage for the personnel is when there are promotions it is highly possible to be an internal one.Whenever changes occur in local regulations, or new technologies are introduced that affect the hospitality industry, training must be introduced as well.More information about the methods of training actually used in the Hospitality Industry presented above, in section “Choosing training methods” can be seen in Chapter 4: Data analysis where an interview taken with a Human Resources Manager will be explained and analyzed.

2.4 summary

In the literature review, the researcher has provided background information of the concept of training and the training process.This chapter has presented existing information regarding methods of identifying training needs, the training cycle developed by Robert H. Woods, which includes the objectives, the methods of selecting trainees, the methods of training and processes of implementing and evaluating training.This chapter also provided general existing information regarding the use of training in the hospitality industry. More information about this section can be found in chapter 4: Data analysis.The next chapter details the methodology used to conduct the research.

Chapter 3. Methodology

3.1 Introduction

This chapter explains and justifies the methodology used in order to complete the research.They type of dissertation undertaken is an empirical one. This type has a literature base and also requires undertaking a primary research. Literature base refers to articles, books, statistics, that have been already written in this topic.The research strategy involves a survey which is designated for employees, and an interview for the recruiters involved in this research. In this way both quantitative and qualitative research data are involved.

3.2 Secondary Research

A research question or hypothesis can be answered through literature review. This requires the researcher to seek existing data sources for relevant information, and then analyze and summarize the data obtained. (Hale, 2006)Secondary data is identified by Pape (2011) as existing data that has been collected and processed for the purpose of solving a particular problem that should serve as a starting point for the research project.”Secondary research involves synthesis of existing research rather than primary research, where data is collected from, research subjects or experiments” [Crouch; Sunny Crouch, Matthew Housden (2003):19]. In this part of the research, the researcher consulted the already existing information about the topic, which can be found in the literature.

3.2.1 Literature Search

The purpose of the literature search is to obtain existing data that concerns the topic discussed in the present research.In order to obtain existing information regarding training, the researcher searched mainlyfor Human Resources books that explain and clarify the concept of training. Such books were found in the local library in the city of Brasov, and in the school’s library. Other information regarding the topic was found online, at Training Magazine (www.trainingmag.com), SAGE database, Manchester Metropolitan University’s online library and other online articles.For the purpose of conducting the literature search, several keywords were used: “training”, “training objectives”, “training methods”, “job descriptions and job specification”, “types of training”, “evaluating training”.The search for literature was mostly successful, as can be seen in the Literature Review chapter. The major problem was the lack of information regarding the use of training in the hospitality industry.

3.2.2 Literature Review

A literature review is a text written by someone to consider the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are secondary sources, and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work.The Literature chapter is categorized in two main sections: “Determining the concept of training”, and “Establishing the use of training in the hospitality industry”. This structure was formed according to objectives set in the Research Proposal: “To explore the concept of training” and “To establish the use of training in the hospitality industry”.Further information about the content of the literature review can be found in Chapter 2.

3.3 Primary Research

Primary research consists of a collection of original primary data. It is often undertaken after the researcher has gained some insight into the issue by reviewing secondary research or by analyzing previously collected primary data. Primary research can be accomplished through various methods: questionnaires and interviews, experiments and direct observations.

3.3.1 Primary Data

Primary data is information that is created by the researcher based on the information gathered in the literature review, through a series of research instruments. The data is then analyzed and interpreted. The primary data collected will be qualitative and quantitative.The qualitative method investigates the why and how of the decision making, not just what where, when. Qualitative methods are used to capture what people say about their meanings and interpretations. The data for qualitative research is gathered trough interviews, on-site observations, and focus groups reproduced in a narrative rather than a numerical form.The qualitative primary data used by the researcher for this dissertation will be an interview with an employee from the human resource department. According to the dissertation proposal there should be interview with a General Manager, and around three-four interviews with Human resource personnel. However, the researcher considered that one interview will be enough. From the interview only general data needs to be obtained about what kind of training cycles are used in the researched organization.”Quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of social phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques” (Given, Lisa M. (2008). The Sage encyclopaedia of qualitative research methods. Los Angeles, Calif.: Sage Publications)Quantitative data is any data that can be measured and transformed in numerical form such as percentage and statistics. In layman’s terms, this means that the quantitative researcher asks specific, narrow questions and collects numerical data from participants to data collection.The quantitative primary data used by the researched is a questionnaire addressed to hospitality industry employees. The researcher expects that the data gathered from these questionnaires will help to determine the perceptions of the employees about the concept of the training.

3.3.2 Research Instrument design

The research instrument is the tool used to collect data. The tools used in this dissertation are a questionnaire and an interview.The first research instrument was a questionnaire. The objective of the questionnaire was to obtain the target audience’s opinions and perceptions regarding the employee’s point of view about the concept of training. The questionnaire was designed to acquire information from Hospitality Industry employees, about their perception of the training process. The questionnaire has a total of ten questions, each closed. Multiple choices are offered for the responders, where they can easily choose the answer for the question. The responses and the questions are based on the information gathered from the literature review, andwill be compared in chapter 4: Analysis of Results.The second research instrument was an interview. The objective of the interview was to see how the Human Resources department perceives the concept of training. The interview is a semi-structured one, because “The strengths of semi-structured interviews are that the researcher can prompt and probe deeper into the given situation” (Kajornboon, 2005, p. 6).The interview has six questions, which will enable the researcher to to understand how the Human Resources department perceives the concept of training. In the end, the data gathered from the interview will be compared to the information gathered from the questionnaire.

3.3.3 Piloting the research Instrument

A research instrument pilot has been formulated and tested in order to evaluate the efficiency of the questionnaire. The pilot survey was distributed for a total number of ten persons. The outcome result of the questionnaire piloting revealed minor changes of the research instrument. Three additional questions were added to the questionnaire to help gather the necessary information for the data analysis. These additional questions are mainly about the respondents’ personnel opinions about the concept of training.The pilot questionnaire was handed to ten persons from the guest relations department. The researcher chose the guest relations departments, because at that moment they were conducting a training session, so the respondent’s memory about the training process was fresh. The results gathered from the pilot questionnaire helped to improve the actual questionnaire.The pilot interview was conducted with a representative of Human Resources Department in a customer service agency located in the city of Brasov. The questions after the pilot interview remained, because the researcher considered that they are adequate for the final interview and it can obtain the desired results.

3.3.4 Sampling Strategy

Sampling Methods are used to select a sample from within a general population. Proper sampling methods are necessary to eliminate bias in the selection process, and thus it can help reduce cost or effort in gathering the information.The sampling method used for this dissertation is the purposive sample. The purposive sample method is a non-representative subset of some larger population, and is conducted to serve a very specific need or purpose. The researcher chose this sampling method because it had a specific group in mind. This specific group of people that was targeted was comprised of employees from Kronwell Hotel Brasov, the organization where the research was conducted. The sample size for the quantitative research was the total number of the employees from Kronwell Hotel Brasov. For the qualitative research one or maximum two interviews were used.The sample respondents for the qualitative research were contacted via email, acopy can be seen in appendix X, and for the quantitative research they were contacted directly with the managers’ verbal approval.

3.3.5 Conducting the research

The research was conducted in Hotel Kronwell Brasov. The first research instrument was a multiple choice questionnaire, where the respondents could answer in paper and pen format and on an online platform, where the questionnaire was conducted (surveymonkey.com) A number of questionnaires were distributed to employees of the hospitality establishment directly, and another series of questionnaires were distributed online, due to the fact that the employees were not available at that time.The type of interview was semi structured. One final interview was taken with a Human Resource official from a Hotel Kronwell Brasov. The interview was tape-recorded and transcribed, ready for analysis (See Appendix). The interview length was 6:18 minutes. It was conducted according to the already set interview questions.

3.4 Data analysis

Analysis of data is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modelling data with the goal of highlighting useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision making.

3.4.1 Quantitative data analysis

For the quantitative research a questionnaire was chose. The questionnaire was structured to ten questions, each multiple choice.The researcher contacted the respondents directly, face to face, and via e-mail, for those who were not available to answer to the questionnaires in person. The quantitative research was completed within a two week timeframe. To maintain the quality and effectiveness of the quantitative research, the researcher chose to have at least 50 samples, the total number of employees from Kronwell Hotel Brasov.The order of the questions in the questionnaire follows the training cycle presented in Chapter 2. Literature Review, in subchapter 2.2.2: The training cycle. The questions are based on objective number 4, “To analyze potential hospitality employees’ perception on the training procedures”,from the Dissertation Proposal.After the employee has finished the orientation program, he has to be introduced to the training process. Usually this is the duty of the Human Resources Department. The first questions illustrated how well the Human Resources department explained the contents of the training session. The responses for this question are in a ranking scale: very well, fairly well, not very well, not at all.The second question refers to the training materials that can be used in a training session. The respondent can choose between the training materials most commonly used: visual aids, case studies, games, handouts.The third question is in yes or no format, and asks the respondent about the job description. This question relates to the “conducting the needs assessment” step from the training cycle.The fourth question relates to “choosing training methods” part from the cycle and asks the respondent what were the methods were used during the training process. The respondent can choose from various methods of training: conference training, on-the-job training, lectures, coaching/mentoring, job rotation, role-playing or team training.In the fifth question the researcher refers to the “implementing the training program” step from the cycle, by asking how much time did the respondent spent in the training session. The answer for this question is based on a ranking scale, from strongest to weakest: a great deal, a lot, a moderate amount, a little, none at all.The sixth question refers to a specific training method, coaching and mentoring, where the actual training comes from the supervisor. The answer choices for this question are based on a ranking scale from the strongest to the weakest: extremely effective, very effective, moderately effective, slightly effective and not at all effective.The seventh question refers to the “evaluating the training “step. It asks the respondent how often the company organizes follow-up training sessions. The respondents can choose between: weekly, twice a month, monthly, quarterly, every six months, less than every six months, never.Questions number eight and nine ask the respondent about their personal perception of the training methods: which of them are more efficient and which of them are more commonly used. The answer choices are the same as in question four.The final question asks general information about the respondent: name (optional), gender, age, city/town, country, occupation and years of experience.Each number of responses was calculated as a percentage of the total number of responses; the analysis of these results can be seen in chapter 4: Analysis of Results.

3.4.2 Qualitative data analysis

For the qualitative research an interview was chosen. There are six questions in the interview, designed for the Human Resource department. The questions are based on Chapter 2: Literature Review, relying mainly on the training cycle, presented in the subchapter 2.2.2: The training cycle. The order of the questions follows the questionnaire questions order, but from another perspective, the Human Resource Department’s perspective. The interview is based on objective number 3: “To examine how hospitality recruiters use training and their perceptions on the value of training.” from the Dissertation Proposal.The interview will be analysed in Chapter 4: Analysis of Results.

3.5 Summary

This chapter detailed the methodology of research. It made a connection between the aim and objectives set in the Dissertation Proposal and the actual research.It has three main parts:The first part detailed the secondary research. What were the objectives for the literature, what kind of search mechanism was used, what key words and phrases were used in order to the researcher to be successful.The second discusses the primary research. The objectives and purpose of the primary data, difference between qualitative and quantitative data, and which type of data was collected. It presented the research instrument design , how was the research instrument piloted, who was the targeted respondents, and how was the actual research conductedThe last section describes the data analysis including, the methods and processes that were used and explains why.The next chapter, chapter 4: Analysis of results presents the results of the primary data collected.

Chapter 4: Analysis of results

4.1 Introduction

The purpose of this chapter is to analyze and interpret the collected data from Kronwell Hotel, Brasov. The analysis provides information about how the employees and recruiters perceive the training program in the researched establishment.The collected data will be interpreted and compared against the reviewed literature in order to determine similarities and extract how the hospitality industry use the training process, and how they perceive the value of training.In conducting the research a multiple choice questionnaire and an interview with the Human Resource manager was used. In this chapter the results and the interpretation of the results can be seen.

4.2. Problem Encountered

During the process of gathering the primary data there were a few limitations and issues.The interview questions and the questionnaire questions were designed in English and then translated to Romanian in order to better communicate and acquire more clear data from the participants. The hotel where the research is made, Kronwell Hotel Brasov was recently opened. The opening date which was initially set during the winter holidays, was delayed because unexpected circumstances (fire in separate section of the building). In this way the time frame for gathering the primary data was short.

4.3. Interview

4.3.1 Profile

The interview is a semi structured one, and the purpose of the interview was to make connection what it was found in the literature and what the researched establishment use. The full transcript of the interview will be analyzed in order to extract the relevant information regarding how the Human Resources department perceives the concept of training. The full transcript of the interview can be seen in the appendix. The outcome of the interview will be compared to the literature review and to the results of the questionnaire.The interview person was the Human Resources Manager, a full-time employee of the Kronwell Hotel.The interview has seven questions introducing a topic of discussion that will satisfy the main objectives of the paper. The interview is not restricted to its structure; additional questions were added during the interview with examples provided by the interviewee that will help the analysis.There are six questions in the interview designed for the Human Resource department. The questions are based in the Chapter 2 Literature Review, mainly on the training cycle, presented in the subchapter 2.2.2 The training cycle. The order of the questions follows the questionnaire questions order, but there are from another perspective, the Human Resource Department perspective. The interview is based on objective number 3. “To examine how hospitality recruiters use training and their perceptions on the value of training.”, from the Dissertation Proposal.

4.3.2 Analysis of the interview

The interview questions are almost the same as the questionnaire questions, but from another perspective. The responses from the questions try to reflect the Human Resources Department perception about the value of training.The results analysis process has revealed three major themes from the responses obtained from the interview:The efficiency of preparation for the training processThe methods of conducting the trainingOpinion and feedback from the respondents

The efficiency of preparation for the training process

The first theme comprises of results obtained from the first two questions. From these the researcher gathered data about the efficiency of the preparation for the training process.Regarding the efficiency for the preparation of the training process, research shows that the materials used for the training process are chosen according the necessity of each department. The interviewed response for the question regarding the training materials was: “It depends on the department, depends on the staff which I ask, it may be in written material, after that an individual discussion will be held, if it is top management than I prefer to use power point presentation and then go on free discussion.”From the organization perspective it is vital to offer proper support during the training process. This can be seen in how they chose the training materials for the new employees, and also the job description provided.

The methods of conducting the training

The second theme consists of results obtained from the next set of questions (number 3, number 4 and number 5). From these the researcher gathered data about the methods of conducting the training process.Regarding the methods of conducting the research, data collected reveals that the methods of conducting the training are mostly on-the-job training and mentoring. These can be seen in how much time the organization preserves for the training process: “I mean according to the department we established a certain time, eg a week is the minimum, but if I notice that the person needs more support that is when I’m willing to give him the support and then it can spread even to two weeks. … After that it will be constantly monitored and adjusted where it exceeds its limits and where they do not achieve their goals.” Follow up training sessions are organized quarterly, and between this times constant support is accorded by the supervisor. Which reveals that coaching and mentoring is used almost in the same amount as on-the-job training.

Opinion and feedback from the respondent

The third theme comprises the last two questions, from which the personal opinion of the respondent is revealed. Regarding the respondent opinion of training programs, data collected shows that the most efficient and the most commonly used training method is on-the-job training. The respondent placed in order the suggested answers: “On the job training, I consider the most important, after that, team training, conference training, job rotation, mentoring and I would not place it last the role-playing.” The advantages and disadvantages of this training method was asked, the answer was: “Probably the disadvantage would be if you have a powerful man in initiation it might not reach the proposed target and objectives. The advantage is that the new employee is more open and perceives and understands the responsibilities much easier.”

4.3.3 Summary

The researched establishment perceives the use of training as a vital element for a fruitful collaboration with the new employee. The organization gives the necessary support and offers the best from them for the employee in order to get the wanted results from them.

4.4. Questionnaire

4.4.1 Profile

The target audience is comprised from employees hired from different departments. A total number of 50 questionnaires were distributed in person directly at the location of the hotel in paper format and online via a survey platform for the employees who could not complete the survey at the location. The total number or questionnaires returned is 50 and the response rate is 100, so the total number of usable questionnaire is 50.

4.4.2 The analysis of the Questionnaire

The order of the questions in the questionnaire follows the training cycle presented in Chapter 2. Literature Review, in subchapter 2.2.2 The training cycle. The questions are based on objective number 4, “To analyze potential hospitality employees’ perception on the training procedures”, from the Dissertation Proposal.The results analysis process has revealed three major themes from the responses obtained from the questionnaire:The efficiency of preparation for the training processThe methods of conducting the trainingOpinion and feedback from the respondentsThe last question from the questionnaire ask the respondents general information about them, such as: name (optional), age, gender, city/town, occupation, years of experience. This information is used as a guideline for the researcher, to form a profile for each respondent.

The efficiency of preparation for the training process

The first theme comprises of results obtained from the first three questions. From these the researcher gathered data about the efficiency of the preparation for the training process.Regarding the efficiency for the preparation of the training process, research shows that the 42% percent of the respondents are pleased with how the Human Resources Department explained the process of training, as can be seen at Table 4.1.Answer ChoicesResponsesPercentageVery well2142%Fairly well2040%Not very well714%Not at all24%Table 4.1. Information about how pleased the employees are with the Human Resources explanation about the training process.Regarding what kinds of materials were used during the training session, the 58% of the respondents said it was Visual Aids, example Power point presentation, as can be seen at Table 4.2.Case studies as the number percentage, 42 % were the second most used materials during the training session. This demonstrates that visual aids and case studies are the mostly used training materials in the researched establishment.Answer ChoicesResponsesPercentageVisual Aids (ex. Power Point Presentation)2958%Case Studies2142%Games ( ex. Role-Play)1530%Handouts1938%Table 4.2.Information about the materials used during the training sessionFrom the total number of respondent 84% received a job description, these proves that the organization is trying to prepare the training process as best as they can. Taking in consideration that it is a newly opened hotel, they are at the starting point with the training process. They prepared the training process but because of some unexpected circumstances the training process itself was delayed.

The methods of conducting the training

The second theme consists of results obtained from the next set of questions (number 4, number 5, number 6 and number 7). From these the researcher gathered data about the methods of conducting the training process. Regarding the methods of conducting the research data collected reveals that the training method mostly used was on-the job training, 72% of the respondent answered this option. (See table 4.3) The Team training as the number of percentage, 48%, was the second most used training method within the researched organization.Answer ChoicesResponsesPercentageConference training1224%On-the job training3672%Lectures816%Coaching/mentoring1632%Job rotation816%Role-Playing1836%Team training2448%Table 4.3 Information about what training methods were usedRegarding how much time the respondents spend training for the job, 54 % responded with a moderate amount, see Table 4.4. Only 1 respondent did not spend time training for the job. As can be seen in the interview responses the company organizes the amount of time spent for training, according to the department, and in some cases based on the individual evolution.Answer ChoicesResponsesPercentageA great deal510%A lot1020%A moderate amount2754%A little714%None at all12%Table 5.4. The amount of time spent for training.Regarding the support and training received from the direct supervisor of the employee 44 % of the respondents perceive the effectiveness of this very effective, only 2 % of the respondent perceived not at all effective. These result shows that the coaching and mentoring offered by the supervisors are effective, and help the employee to achieve their tasks and goals within the organization.Concerning the period when the company organizes follow-up training session, 30 % of the total number of respondents answered quarterly, see Table 4.5. Only 8% of the respondent answered never. As can be seen at the interview response, the company tries to organize follow-up training session quarterly, in some case at every six months. Because it is about a newly opened hotel, some employees did not manage to have their first follow-up training session, so this is the reason why 4 respondents answered never.

7.       How often does the company organize follow-up training sessions?

Answer ChoicesResponsesWeekly5Twice a month4Monthly5Quarterly15Every six months9Less than every six months9Never4Table 4.5 Information regarding the period when follow-up training sessions are organizedRegarding the methods of conducting the research data collected reveals that the researcher organization use mostly the on-the job training, combined in some cases with team training. The employees spend a moderate amount of time in the training program, based on the interview responses a week. The effectiveness of the supervisor support and training is very effective, this shows that coaching and mentoring is also used as a training method, but usually by the supervisor. And the company is organizing follow-up training session quarterly.

Opinion and feedback from the respondents

The third theme comprises the last three questions, from which the personal opinion and general information of the respondents are revealed. Regarding the respondents opinion of training programs, data collected shows the most efficient training method is on-the job training, 70 % of the respondents chose this answer, as can be seen in table 4.6. According to the number of percentage coaching and mentoring with 34 % of the responses is placed second. As can be seen in the previous questions, coaching and mentoring is used in the researched establishment by the direct supervisor of the employee. Lectures received the lowest number of responses, with only 6 %.Answer ChoicesResponsesPercentageConference training48%On-the job training3570%Lectures36%Coaching/mentoring1734%Job rotation1326%Role-Playing1428%Team training1530%Table 4.6 Respondents opinion about which training method is the most efficient one.Regarding the respondents personal opinion about which training method is the most commonly used, on-the job training received the highest responses, 66 %, see Table 4.7. Conference training with 44% and team training with 36 % of the total number of responses are placed second and third. Compared with the actual training methods used in the organization, where 72 % of the respondents answered on-the job training and 48 % team training, the responses from question number 9 reflects how actually the employees are satisfied with the training methods used.Answer ChoicesResponsesPercentageConference training2244%On-the job training3366%Lectures918%Coaching/mentoring510%Job rotation816%Role-Playing510%Team training1836%Table 4.7 Respondents opinion about which training method is the most commonly used.The respondents personal opinion about the training methods, are based on their personal experience with these. The results regarding the question about which is more efficient and which is most commonly used alter, as can be seen at Table 4.8.Answer ChoicesMost EfficientMore commonly usedConference training8%44%On-the job training70%66%Lectures6%18%Coaching/mentoring34%10%Job rotation26%16%Role-Playing28%10%Team training30%36%Table 4.8. Comparison between the more efficient and more commonly used training methods, based on the respondent personal opinionThis alteration between the most efficient and the most commonly used training method can be based on the past experience of the respondent, because the researched establishment is newly opened. The results do not differ so much, at example at the on-the job training is 70 % the most efficient and 66 % the more commonly used. The biggest difference can be noticed at the conference training where it is only 8 % efficient and 44 % commonly used. This may occur because it can be confused with the team training.

General Information

The last question of the survey asked the respondent general demographic information, in order to create a profile of the respondents.The researcher considers that demographic information does not affect the results of this research, and do not consist an important research point.As can be seen in table 4.9, the majority of respondents are aged between 20 and 24. From the total number of respondents, 50, only 41 answered at the age section.As can be seen in table 4.10 the majority of respondents are working in the guest relations department, a total number of 10 persons. From the managerial position 8 employees completed the questionnaire. From the total number of respondents, only 38 answered to this question.Age rangeNumberPercentageBetween 20-242550%Between 25-27612%Between 29-33714%Between 44-4936%Total number4182%Table 4.9 Age of respondentsDepartamentNumberPercentageHousekeeping816%Economic48%Managers816%Receptie48%Guest Relations1020%Food and beverage48%Total number3876%4.10. Occupation of the respondents

4.4.3 Summary

4.5 Summary

This chapter has analyzed the data collected through the quantitative and qualitative research.The questions from the interview and the questionnaire were divided in three major parts:The efficiency of preparation for the training processThe methods of conducting the trainingOpinion and feedback from the respondentsBy dividing the collected data into the three parts it was easier for the researcher to analyze and to compare data.Several key factors were taken into consideration when analyzing responses:How the employees perceive the efficiency of preparation for the training processHow the organization perceive this preparation, and according to what they chose the training materialsHow vital is the job description and how many employees receive oneWhat kind of training material were used and how much time was spend on trainingHow effective is the training received from the direct supervisor of the employees, and how the organization perceive this kind of trainingHow often the company organize follow-up training sessionThe personal opinion of the respondents about the training methods, which is most efficient and which is the most commonly used, and a comparison of themGeneral information about the respondents, age and occupationThrough this chapter objective number 3.To examine how hospitality recruiters use training and their perceptions on the value of training, and number 4.To analyze potential hospitality employees’ perception on the training procedures has been achieved.In the next chapter, the literature review will be compared with the analyzed data, and according to this conclusions, recommendation and reflections will be draw.

Chapter 5. Conclusions, recommendations and reflections

5.1 Introduction

5.2 conclusions

5.3 Recommendations

5.4 Reflections & evaluation of methodology

5.5 Suggestions for further research

Thanks for your opinion!
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