- Published: October 31, 2021
- Updated: October 31, 2021
- University / College: Griffith University
- Language: English
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Motivation is a complex concept of management in workplace. Literally, its meaning is ‘to move’ which is derived form of a Latin word “movere”. Motivation is fundamentally the state associated with the perspective of an individual representing his/her strength about exerting for a specific behaviour. It is basically an internal drive which stimulates, upholds and regulates the priorities of a person’s actions. The existence of motivation along with it nature can be deduced from experience about the behaviour through observation. A manager becomes capable of effectively blending the organizational goals with the individuals’ aims through the use ofmotivational models. In simpler words, motivation is the drive or need existing within any individual which result in the individual’s goal orientation. Motivation helps people to identify the difference between the things which are carried out and things which are to be carried out to achieve some specific aim .
Scientific administration assumes that employees are emotional beings and it emphasizes greatly on encouraging various cohesive type of work groups encompassing each worker with a feeling of belonging to the group. It is further recognized that most of the people possess three qualities which are; having potential for their development, having capacity to assume the responsibilities and being ready for directing the behaviour of ones’ self towards the organizational goals. As a result it can be stated that the fundamental function and responsibility of a manager is to make a friendly environment for the employees which will help them in their growth and support them in recognizing and developing the human characteristics with the help of motivation. A manager is expected to comprehensively understand the human behaviour to utilize the tools of motivation for their employees as an instrument to achieve maximum organizational productivity .
The motivation theories are classified into two types; one is content theory other is process theory, the former describes the ‘why’ related to human behaviour, need hierarchy of Maslow, Content theories judge need survival, relatedness, growth, accomplishment, hygiene and attractive factors. The Need theories provide significance to psychological factors accountable for meticulous behaviour meant at fulfilling the requirements of the individuals. A theory was propounded by Maslow (1943) in based on reality that a man is a deficient animal, and once one of the needs is pleased, another emerge in its position. The fulfilled need ends the motivation of individual behaviour. It is increasing; to come satisfied need influences behaviour of the individual. The individual’s behaviour, in a specific moment, is usually revealed by his / her powerful need. These needs essentially are not intentionally identified by a person but might be hidden. It is necessary that wants of the persons are given significance and the administrator is competent to perceive most imperative need at a specific moment. Maslow (1943) categorized human needs in five main sets namely; safety, esteem, social, psychological and self-actualization. A hierarchy of basic needs is formed by these needs. The upper level needs by a person are not deemed important until the lesser-level needs are fulfilled at least moderately. A need as soon as is satisfied, the individual is worried about the next need to be fulfilled in hierarchy .
Maslow’s five fundamental needs are reorganize by Alderfer in 1969 into just three categories: these are existence, relatedness; and the third one is growth (ERG). The first level of Alderfer category is existence, comprise on physiological and security needs. The second level of Alderfer category is relatedness, comprised of social needs. The third class, growth, consist of the individual’s aspiration to be confident, imaginative and inventive. The Need theory of Alderfer is dependent on the hypothesis that upper-order needs can emerge even prior to the inferior-level needs which are completely satisfied .
McClelland (1962) acknowledged three fundamental needs contained by individuals by promoting a successive and controlled theory. These are needs of achievement, power, and affiliation. McClelland’s need of achievement & affiliation are alike to Maslow’s needs of social and esteem. The power need has not been discussed in Maslow’s theory. The strong points of the needs can also be recognized by managing a test called Thematic Appreciation. Based on understanding of a manager, he or she can compose an environment to draw the desired presentation from the worker and also making available the employee with satisfaction and growth.
The need theory of Maslow’s is deficient and has workable limitations while converting needs into somewhat operational, because the state for rewarding social needs vary from person to person. Mausner, Snyderman (1962) and Herzberg wrote a theory called two-factor theory for giving some direction to managers for resolving problems regarding motivation. There is a slight or no affiliation between the productivity and the morale. The Herzberg, Snyderman and Mausner’s theory is totally based on theory of job content regarding hygiene factors other is job context which is regarding motivating factors. Job content belongs to the job itself, and come out from the job and employee association. Therefore these features are native and act in different traditions.
Hygiene factors comprise of “technical management, interpersonal correlation with peers, pay, working environment, status, company strategy, job safety and interpersonal relationships with superiors” reference is as Tosi, Rizzo & Carroll, 1986. The factors mentioned above are job related and also comprised of maintenance factors. These are supposed to be adventitious, since they are beyond the work of the employees. On the other hand Hygiene factors (satisfiers) to the degree that they create displeasure if not present. However, for good presentation they are considered de-motivators .
The Motivating factors regarding job content are involved improved satisfaction and desire to do hard job. As the presence of the individual provides satisfaction and stimulate on the way to efforts and better implementation, on the other hand their absence do not produce displeasure as well. The Advancement is one of the motivating factors, among others like work itself, the possibility of growth” and recognition. There is another theory called Expectancy theory which attempts to categorize the connection among the dynamic variables influencing the person’s behaviour. This theory is based upon the principle that performance is defined by interactive things of motivational strength, characteristics, ability, and self-importance. Expectancy theory by Vroom’s in 1964 based on idea of the level of work is a function of capability and motivation. Both the factors are deemed necessary for excellent performance, missing of any one of the factors results low performance .
According to Reinforcement theory the employees can also be motivated properly in a designed work background with commendation for attractive performance Reference. It insists that the amount of external atmosphere – and not domestic needs, or desires – defines persons’ behaviour. The administrator has to identify commanding reinforcements for improving the performance of the individual, for example attractive job assignments, good pay, promotion and involvement in making the decisions. Reinforcement may be constructive or unconstructive, but it depends on the situation. Constructive refers probability of required response, which tends to a positive result. Occasionally unconstructive reinforcement can also be used to discourage unwanted performance, whereas the constructive stimulus is more attractive. The unconstructive reinforcement can be retribution or extinction.
Another theory called, Goal-setting theory is based upon the premise that performance is the outcome of an employee’s intentions to carry out a task. The performance of the individual can be improved by setting objectives and goals. The goals are the actions to be taken by a person which in turn improve the performance of the individual. Difficult goals if designed, can yield better results and vice versa. Specific goals yield in good performance and participation in designing goals do not improve performance necessarily. The goal-setting is a process and have to go through event, cognition, evaluation, goal setting, and performance.
The most recent integrative theory regarding motivation is emerging and in known as Temporal Motivation Theory. It amalgamates into a particular formulation of the primary characteristic of some other motivational theories, which includes Incentive, Drive, Need, Self-Efficacy and Goal Setting theories. This theory makes simpler the motivation allowing conclusion from a theory which is to be interpreted into conditions of another. One more journal article which helped to develop this Theory, is called The Nature of Procrastination, by a Psychological Association’s (American) George A.
An organization can use McClelland’s need and achievement theory to gain competitive advantage over its competitors. This technique fundamentally involves an extensive training program for various groups of approximately 10 to 25 people. This same procedure is adopted for both power motives as well as achievements. The training in this method is conducted by a professional which involves various steps. The first step is to create confidence and conviction in the employees that the motives are changeable. Second step is to convince the employees about developing strengths for achieving the motives in conformance with the organizational culture and environment. Third step of this technique involves teaching the employees, the way to act in high achievement orientation. The fourth step is an important step for the management which is to record the achievements of each employees and access their performance accordingly. The final step is setting up of individual goals of employees in accordance with the organizational goals. These simple five step model can be adopted by any organization in order to gain competitive advantage over other organizations .
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