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Example of essay on cultures and civilization-the science sources

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Culture normally comes after civilization and when civilization occurs then cultures are subject to change from one era to another. Cultures are therefore considered to be dynamic as they will always seem to be different at any given point in time. In light of this, inventors come up with different inventions that are prone to change with time. For this same reason, they can be termed as the source of civilization in a given culture as depicted by various scholars such as these ones.

Ibn al-Haytham.

Ibn al-Haytham was a Muslim inventor and sage referred in different sources as either Arabicor Persian who made substantial contributions to the ideologies of optics, mathematics, ophthalmology, visual perception, physics, astronomy and to the scientific technique (Salahuddin 12). Al-Haytham also contributed in writing intuitive interpretations on workings done by Ptolemy, Aristole and Euclid who was a Greek mathematician.
Al-Haytham birthplace was Basra in 965 which is the present –day Iraq, mainly lived in Cairo, Egypt and died at the age of 74. A good number of historians have distinct believes concerning his ethnicity, in that if he was Persian or Arab. He most likely died in Cairo, Egypt. The period he was in Buyid Iran, he served as a public servant and read several scientific and theological books (Salahuddin 13).
He made important progresses in optics, scientific method and physical science. His research about optics is accredited with contributing a fresh emphasis on research. The influence he had in physical sciences in overall and particularly in optics has been upheld with much respect and has steered in a new generation in research of optics both in practise and theory.
Al-Haytham performed different experiments with mirrors, lenses, reflection and refraction of light rays entering horizontal and vertical components which was prove that light rays travel in straight lines which was a basis for developing geometric optics (Salahuddin 14). He proposed a model analogous to Snell’s law of sines in which he argued that what caused of light to reflect. The result could be same to snell’s law of sines if extended but he did not achieve the result sufficiently.
Al-Haytham wrote many other dissertations on optics. Hi book of optics (Kitab al-Manazir) is a complement to his Treatise on light (Risala fi l-Daw). The book contents were in depth research on the features of luminance and its beaming dispersion via various translucent and transparent media. Al-Haytham also investigated the anatomy of the eye and impressions in visual perception. He researched the meteorology of the rainbow and the thickness of the atmosphere and also developed the pioneer obscura camera and the pinhole camera (Salahuddin 16).
Al-Haytham examined several celestial occurrences which include twilight, the eclipse and the moonlight. He also researched into magnifying lenses, spherical mirrors, catoptrics, refraction and dioptrics. He explained the major areas in medicine, anatomy, physiology and ophthalmology including explanations on Galenic works.
Al-Haytham’s experiments were mainly based on the combination of mathematics and classical physics in relation to formulating the rudiments of the expected mostly as a hypothetico-deductive procedure as it is known in scientific research. The approach of using mathematics and physics in experiments backed a good number of his suggestions and subsequently, stuck his theory of light, vision and colour also including the research he performed in dioptrics and catoptrics (Salahuddin 16).

Abbas ibn Firnas.

Abu Al-Qasim Abbas Ibn Firnas (810-887 A.D.), was a Muslim Andalusian Renaissance man who was an inventoe, aviator, physician, engineer, Arabic poet, and Andalusian musician. He was born in Izn-Rand Onda, Al-Andalus in present day’ Ronda, Spain and spent his life in Emirate of Cordoba. He is famous for his early effort at aviation (Salahuddin 20).
Ibn Firnas designed Al-Meqat a water clock to know prayer times, find out times and know the days and know sunset and sunrise times. He is also accredited for creating the glass manufacturing of stones and sand. He developed a chain of rings to be utilized to mimic the movement of stars and planets, and devised a mechanism for cutting rock crystal. He gave into conception some metronome and came up with a room where spectators observed clouds, lightning, stars, and thunder produced by processes situated in his laboratory (Salahuddin 22).
Abbas ibn Firnas was the pioneer in an attempt to make a controlled flight. He operated the flight controls of his glider by use of double sets of wings which were artificial in order to regulate his altitude and to alter his direction. He succeeded in getting back from where he had taken off from however, he landed unsuccessfully. The evidence resulting from this particular ancient account is provided by Ahmed Mohammed, who was a Moroccan historian. Many historians urgue that Ibn Firnas’ trial of glider flight ended up inspiring Eilmer of Malmesbury of England between 1000 and 1010 but it lacks evidence to prove it (Salahuddin 23).

Abu al-Qasim al-Zahraw.

Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi (936-01013) was a physician of Aran origin who lived in Al-Andalus. In West, he was also known as Abulcasis. Some people have described him as the father of present and modern surgery (Salahuddin 26). Many scholars have recognised him as the utmost medieval surgeon ever to appear from the world of Islam.
Abu al-Qasim was the first physician to recognize the genetic nature of haemophilia and was the pioneer physician ever to give a description of ectopic pregnancy. He gave a description about using forceps in delivering. He introduced at least 200 instruments used in surgery most of which were not ever used by previous surgeons before. For instance, Hamidan itemised more than twenty six inventive surgical instruments introduced by Abulcasis. The modern surgery’s practise of internal stitching is credited to his use of catgut (Salahuddin 27).
It appears that the catgut as the sole substance able of dissolving and is tolerable by the body. He also devised the forceps for removing a fetus which is dead as the Al-Tasrif book illustrates. He also led the way in the preparation of medicinal drugs by distillation and sublimation in pharmacology and pharmacy. The specific attention is in his Liber Servitoris. This is because it gives the reader guidelines and discusses the preparation of complex medicines which were commonly used.
His medical thesis of thirty chapters covered a wide range of medical chapters. Some of the topics were childbirth and dentistry. The thesis consisted information that had accrued during his career which lasted for up to 50 years of working out, practise and teaching. In the book also, he described the significance of a good patient-doctor relationship (Salahuddin 28). He also stressed the significance of handling and relating well with patients despite their social status. He motivated his students on the close care and observation of patient cases to attain the most precise diagnosis in order to give them the best treatment possible.

Mariyam Aleitrlabi.

Mariyam Aleitrlabi was a brilliant lady who lived in Aleppo city north of Syria during the 10th century AD. She concentrated in studying space science in the sword of state court from 944 until 967. Olastrlab “astrolable complex’ which was created by the time was invented by Mary. It was an ancient astronomical device described the Arabs “of platelets” was of a prototypical of the celestial dome of two-dimension which demonstrates the appearance of the sky when in a particular place at a particular time (Salahuddin 34).
The machine is capable of measuring the sun’s altitude when in the sky hence assisting them to approximate time during the day or at night. The machine functions in a similar way as the modern day GPS. The machine was used during the Islamic Golden Age, the period of Reinaissance and the European Middle Ages. It was also used in Qibla calculations and finding Salah times which was a prayer (Salahuddin 35).
It is therefore imperative that different scholars be acknowledged by the roles they play in the day to day running of events. As such, they are worth to be remembered for the good jobs they did or are still doing. Some of the inventions that ever came up were inspired by different people from various backgrounds and for the Muslim world; some of their scholars have remained to be the best innovators who ever walked the face of the earth.

Work cited.

Salahuddin Ahmed . A Dictionary of Muslim Names. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. 1999. Print.

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