- Published: October 31, 2021
- Updated: October 31, 2021
- University / College: Queen's University at Kingston
- Language: English
- Downloads: 7
The first chapter of the book introduces the concept of frames and reframing. They propose four basic frameworks for strengthening managerial diagnosis and action, which include a frame for human resource, a political frame, a structural frame, and a symbolic frame (Bolman & Deal 4). The chapter begins with some examples of big management pitfalls, which include Enron corporate scandal, cluelessness of Home Depot CEO Bob Nardelli, and publicity problems with the Secretary of Home Security. The four frames are summarized in the Table 1.
The authors argue that leaders and managers often present few ideas and too many routineresponses to problems and challenges facing organizations. They usually make conclusions based on limited cognitive perspectives to make sense to the word and fail to consider other available options. They always believe that doing things their own way is “the only way” to offer solution to a particular problem. Such assumptions undermine the effectiveness and capabilities of managers to understand and respond to complexities of issues in today’s dynamic business environment.
Successful leaders and managers should therefore adopt a more comprehensive perspective. They should use multiple lenses and skills in reframing – viewing problems from a different perspective, as well as facing new challenges with different and varied tools and reactions. The authors believe that reframing expands response, understanding, styles, and timing that managers apply to problems. Reframing helps managers and leaders translate good intentions into effective action. Using multiple framing improves understanding and promotes versatility. In conclusion, the authors argue that multiple frames enable reframing because it allows managers and leaders to view the same thing from different perspectives.
In Chapter 2, the authors explores how the properties of human nature and properties of modern organizations interact to create pressures and problems that people experience in everyday managerial life. The authors view organization as complex, deceptive, surprising, and ambiguous, which render them difficult to comprehend and manage.
The learning process becomes more important and problematic in complex, deceptive, surprising, and ambiguous environment. Boldman and Deal present a comprehensive discussion on the perspectives of organizational learning. One of the perspectives adopted from the works of Senge and Oshry, emphasizes that most mental models employed by people to understand system are usually incomplete and misleading. Additionally, Argyris and Schon offers a different perspective on organizational learning that focuses on a different paradox: activities carried by people to promote learning actually make it more difficult or even impossible for to learn important things.
– Fallibility of human is a reality and there is always a possibility for human error.
– Communication problem is always a major risk.
– People are habitually satisfied with inadequate understanding of a situation, comforting themselves with a possibility of a few options.
– When faced with uncertainty, people view things in their own perspective and assume that they understand what is happening.
– People develop theories and patterns to help them understand the world around them and fail to devise other options.
The authors discus three common sense “theories” that people usually use to interpret organizational life: blame the bureaucracy, blame individuals, and attribute problems to a thirst for power. Even though they are based on partial truth, they are all misleading and incomplete.
With these realities in mind, the authors propose a critical initial step in managerial artistry and wisdom: understanding the main features of the situation. To achieve this, managers should use more comprehensive theories, richer and broader understanding of human organizations, and ability to apply understanding and theory with skills and grace.
Bolman, G. Lee & Deal, E. Terrence. Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2011.