Research Paper, 8 pages (2000 words)

Example of research paper on emergency management


Emergency management has customarily been considered as the duty of the government and other disaster management bodies. The society entirely believes that these institutions have a role to play during the disasters and in the aftermath. However, many people fail to visualize the effective ways that the victims can apply in saving their situation when faced by a disaster (Perry, 2003). Neglecting the significant role of victims during disasters is a misinformed perspective since effective incorporation of victims in emergency management can better the situation. The paper explores the idea of engaging victims in emergency management by focusingon the methods in which victims can take part in disaster management before and after the disasters.

Research Data and Tools

The researcher will apply three scales of measurement. The nominal scale will be essential into sorting victims into different categories mainly on bases of age and gender. Furthermore, an ordinal scale will be utilized in ranking the participants from the youngest to the oldest while the interval scale will be helpful in creating distinct interval classes for the victims. The result will ensure that its content and empirical analyzes is valid through thorough and careful selection of the sample. The sample must be a representation of every aspect in the population for validity to be assured. The study will ensure construct validity by selecting a smaller sample size as opposed to a larger one in order to obtain results that are more accurate. However, internal unreliability in the data is likely to threaten the reliability of the data. In this context, the study will ensure the consent of the participants is obtained so that they show their commitment in giving the information (Loh, 2005).
The validity of the research will also be reinforced through the aspect of scaling the results. Re-rest technique will also help validate the information, as it will provide a chance to get a new set of results for comparison (Von, 2005). The measurement technique is likely to affect the results in the study due to the weaknesses of the technique. First, the older people may not have the energy to undertake any role in disaster management hence their inclusion makes the data valid but gives a false impression in reliability. The children, though must be part of the sample to foster construct and empirical validity, they reduce the data reliability because they assume insignificant role in disaster management. However, the measurement method is advantageous as it ensures that the research is well balanced and fair (Luce, 2000). The most appropriate scale for the research plan is the ration scale, which will get the ration of people saved through involvement of the victims as opposed to their exclusion.
The ratio scale is reliable in the sense that it has a self-verification mechanism that ensures it gives reliable results to the researcher. This strategy is also valid as the researchers can crosscheck and validate the results of the research easily. However, the scale should be tested to ensure that any errors are noticed and eliminated. A retest is appropriate as the sole reliability test. This is not a norm test but a criterion test because the population is made of human beings prone to mistakes and errors. The population used in the plan and test composes of three main elements. First, the victims, who are grouped according to age and vulnerability, take the first spot. The government officials and other leaders also take part in the research. Last, the relief persons take part in the research to provide a framework of reality.

Role of Victims in the Aftermath of Disasters

The first way that the victims can help in rebuilding after a disaster is in their moral support to other victims. Natural disasters like floods affect many people, yet some people are affected more adversely than others. Moral support to the adversely affected victims is important so that they can get the strength to rebuild. The victims can also help in the rebuilding process after the disasters through financial support to the other people in the society. Some of the victims may have financial stability while others may not. The financial support is vital for successful management the aftermath of a natural disaster (Kaklauskas, Amaratunga & Haigh, 2009). Natural disasters cause financial losses that require a fresh investment in order to correct. However, some of the victims may not have the funds to undertake the reconstruction. In this case, the victims with financial stability can help others to settle through morals and financial support.
However, in giving the financial assistance to the victims people, should beware of fraudsters. Financial contributions should be made to the victims through recognized volunteer and disaster management agencies to help insure that the donations made are put to their intended use only. Provision of the basic needs that the victims require is the other way that the public can help in the aftermath of a disaster. The victims of any disaster need the basic needs in order for them to live on. The public can contribute and help the victims through food, shelter, and clothing. Some of the people who have large homes accommodate some of the victims while the people without such ability help the victims by providing clothing and food. Some of the victims may also have financial savings in their private accounts, which they use in helping other victims.
As much as any help after a disaster is encouraged for humanitarian reasons, the most immediate need of the people involved in a disaster is the medical assistance. The people involved I the natural disasters sustain multiple injuries while others contract different diseases. Offering medical help to the victims is the basic steps in helping them rebuild after the disaster. As much as medical contributions go a long way in saving the lives of the people, they can pose the greatest danger to the people. The arrival of unnecessary and poorly handled medicines at a disaster scene can be a huge burden rather than an asset to the situation. Medical supplies are highly regarded and specialized commodities that must bear a distribution channel of highly qualified personnel. If in any case medical supplies are called for, the medicines sent to the scene must have a shelf life of at least six months after arriving at the site, and they must be clearly labeled. Old prescription and stale medications should never be sent to the scenes.

Role of disaster management in the transformation of the victims

As much as the victims are mostly burdens during the disasters, provision of proper education and disaster management training to the victims can turn them to valuable assets during the disasters. Initially, disaster management training will enable people to be ready for the disasters in case of unprecedented occurrence (Dimitruk, 2007). The main reason why the effect of any disaster appears very huge is that people do not expect the disaster to occur at any time. The people do not have any skills that can help them in case the disaster comes unannounced. However, by equipping the people with disaster management skills, the society and the government will help people deal with the disaster in case it occurs. However, such skills as military skills should not be given to parties, as some people may misuse the skills.
Disaster management will also help the people in getting the loss reduction techniques. Most of the victims in the disasters suffer huge losses because of panic and pressure arising from being caught in unexpected situations. Under these situations, the victims hardly think of the idea of minimizing the losses that characterize their states. Moreover, people often die in the disasters due to the panic. However, disaster management techniques will help people minimize the risks and losses in the disasters. The management techniques train people to avoid panic in case of the disasters hence the people will save more lives through acquisition of the disaster management techniques. However, as much as the training should help minimize the risks, the people should be trained not to risk too much for too little. People should not put their lives at stake in the name of minimizing the losses from any disaster.
Disaster management training will equip people with basic first aid skills and techniques that may save multiple lies that would otherwise be lost in the tragedies (Ibrahim, 2008). Many people watch helplessly as their friends and relatives die in the natural disasters. The people have no way that they can help the victims since they have no skills in the area. In most cases, what is prerequisite in saving the lives of the victims is basic first aid training for all the people likely to suffer the loss in the tragedies. In order to reduce the number of lives lost in the tragedies, disaster management training is necessary. This will go a long way in equipping the people with basic first aid skills that will help to save their own lives and those of other people.

Ethical Considerations in Dealing with the Victims

The first ethical consideration when dealing with the victims is training (Alexander, Chan-Halbrendt & Salim, 2006). The researcher must ensure that the victims are well trained in order for them to deal with aspects of research and tragedies in case they occur. Lack of knowledge of managing emergencies is detrimental is misinformed victims are likely to engage in risky actions. Another important ethical practice in disaster management training and research includes a total disclosure. The educator must disclose all the facts to the victims so that they can act knowing the risks and benefits that they might get. The person dealing with the victims must be able equipped with the knowledge of the risks, circumstances, and benefits of proposed and other alternate treatments in the research. Furthermore, rescue experts must be well versed in the specific nature and manifestation of the controversy related to the nature and process of the innovative treatment, to protect the victims of disasters.
Ethical conduct should also be observed in terms of neutrality and objectivity. The victims suffer the pain of the disaster, which make them develop a disturbing condition of feeling threatened (Thanurjan & LD, 2009). Any act that shows the victims lack of support from the society is capable of making victims believe that the society is uncaring. In researching about the disasters and offering disaster management training, the researcher must be neutral and objective and ensure that the victims do not feel abused by the research. The researcher must also have ample cultural sensitivity of the victims. Some of the cultures will not allow research on the disasters hence the researcher must adhere to such provisions (O’Connell, 2006). More so, the researcher must obtain informed consent from the victims before they can carry out any research on them. Some of the researchers do not consult the victims and may end up hurting the victims because the victims did not intend to provide any information for research purposes. In research, confidentiality is also important, as most of the victims would prefer to remain unnamed due to the sensitivity of the matter.


Disaster management training is important to all people as it ensures participation of victims in emergency management. The disaster management training can help people provide first aid, minimize the losses, and take appropriate actions during the disasters. This important strategy can foster a favorable environment for reducing casualties and destruction of properties. However, while dealing with the victims, ethics like confidentiality and informed consent should be applied.


Von Eye, A. (2005). Review of Cliff and Keats, Ordinal measurement in the behavioral sciences. Applied Psychological Measurement, 29, 401–403.
Luce, R. D. (2000). Utility of uncertain gains and losses: measurement theoretic and experimental approaches.Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Alexander, B., Chan-Halbrendt, C., &Salim, W. (2006). Sustainable livelihood considerations for disaster risk management: Implications for implementation of the government of indonesia tsunami recovery plan. Disaster Prevention and Management, 15(1), 31-50. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/214384238?accountid=45049
Dimitruk, P. (2007). Disaster management: Using internet-based technology.Healthcare Financial Management, 61(1), 84-7. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/196384824?accountid=45049
Ibrahim, M. S. (2008). Technological disaster stages and management. Disaster Prevention and Management, 17(1), 114-126. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09653560810855928
Kaklauskas, A., Amaratunga, D., &Haigh, R. (2009). Knowledge model for post-disaster management. International Journal of Strategic Property Management, 13(2), 117-128. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/205477352?accountid=45049
Loh, B. (2005). Disaster risk management in southeast asia: A developmental approach. ASEAN Economic Bulletin, 22(2), 229-239. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/219632903?accountid=45049
O’Connell, K.,A. (2006). When disaster strikes. Waste Age, 37(3), 78-80,84. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/219231905?accountid=45049
Perry, R. W. (2003). Incident management systems in disaster management. Disaster Prevention and Management, 12(5), 405-412. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/214387744?accountid=45049
Thanurjan, R., & LD, I. P. (2009).The role of knowledge management in post-disaster housing reconstruction. Disaster Prevention and Management, 18(1), 66-77. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09653560910938556

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