Essay, 4 pages (850 words)

Executive orders

Executive Orders of Introduction The executive order number 13491 was issued by President Barrack Obama on January 22, 2009 to bring to an end torture and extraordinary rendition as a means of interrogation. This executive order thus ended these practices, fulfilling President Obama’s longstanding campaign promise. This order particularly asserted that under no circumstances shall a prisoner’s life or person be subjected to inhumane treatment or violent acts such as mutilation, cruel treatment, torture, and murder (Maria et al., 2012). In essence, the order played a crucial role in bringing security agencies such as the CIA into line with U.S. Army Field Manual on Interrogation thus confining CIA interrogators to standardized humane techniques. The executive order number 13491thus played an important role in reducing the suffering of combat enemy detainees in U.S facilities (Maria et al., 2012). President Obama’s Executive Order 13491 of January 22, 2009 President Obama, like his predecessors has issued several executive orders since he assumed office. One such order is the Executive Order Number 13491 of January 22, 2009, which sought to ensure lawful interrogations for armed conflict detainees. The objective of this order was to ensure that people were treated safely, lawfully, and humanely in the government’s endeavors to gather intelligence data. In particular, the order targeted people under U.S custody within its borders and those U.S citizens held in armed conflicts. By this order, the Obama administration sought to comply with its domestic and international treaties such as the Geneva Conventions (Maria et al., 2012). According to this order, the Army Filed Manual would be the guide for interrogating persons under the watch of U.S officer, employee, or agent in a U.S-controlled facility during armed conflicts. Even when applying the authorized interrogation techniques, a U.S officer must adhere to the principles, conditions, limitations, and processes prescribed in the Army Field Manual. This executive order also directed that the CIA closes all the detention facilities it operated except those for short-term holding. Further, all U.S agencies and departments were directed to allow the International Committee of the Red Cross timely and notified access to armed conflict detainees in U.S custody (Thiessen, 2010). The order also sought to establish an inter-agency task force on transfer and interrogation policies. The task force’s membership included the Attorney General, the Director of National Intelligence, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the CIA Director, and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The implementation of the Executive Order 13491 of January 22, 2009 has been marred by quite a number of challenges and criticism. In fact, many stakeholders opine that the order has several loopholes that would allow torture to prevail during interrogations. Although the order initially caused celebrations and unrestrained enthusiasm among U.S citizens with many believing it was a giant step forward, disappointingly, the order has been described to contain torture loopholes and has certain implications (Maria et al., 2012). The first negative impact of implementing this order is that it only prohibits torture for those detained in armed conflicts. It should be acknowledged that it is not only in armed conflicts that U.S military and law enforcers may find themselves holding people in their facilities. In fact, in contemporary society, even private security firms and agents could detain a terror suspect in their facilities. Because of these loopholes, the media has continued to provide space and time for the weaknesses and effects of this executive order (Maria et al., 2012). One issue about the order covered extensively by the media relates to the fact that the order closes only CIA’s detention centers. What is more, those used for short-term holding or on transitory basis were to remain operational. The media has since been awash with questions seeking the definition or “short-term” and “transitory” duration. Also extensively emphasized in the media are the implications of other federal agencies as far as the closure of all detention facilities is concerned since only the CIA was ordered to expeditiously shut its detention facilities. The National Security Agency, the FBI, the Department of Homeland Security, and the Defense Intelligence Agency have the loopholes to maintain their detention facilities in which they may execute torture on armed conflict and non-armed conflict detainees (Thiessen, 2010). Finally, abuses that the order and other rules do not define as torture may have continued despite this executive order being issued. Generally, the implementation of Executive Order 13491 mainly had positive effects since more human and safe interrogation techniques are currently being used on detainees. Although some assert that these techniques are equally torturous, illegal, and controversial, the U.S military approves their use (Maria et al., 2012). These techniques include isolation, sensory deprivation, sleep deprivation, stress position, sensory bombardment, cultural humiliations, phobias in which prisoners are exposed to situations that make them panic. References Maria, A., De Frias, S., Katja, S., White, N. (2012). Counter-terrorism: international law and practice. Oxford University Press. Thiessen, M. A. (2010). Courting disaster: how the CIA kept America safe and how Barrack Obama is inviting the next attack, first American edition. Regnery Publishing.

Thanks for your opinion!
Executive orders. Page 1
Executive orders. Page 2
Executive orders. Page 3
Executive orders. Page 4
Executive orders. Page 5

Your fellow student wrote and submitted this work, "Executive orders". This sample can be used for research and reference in order to help you write your own paper. It is prohibited to utilize any part of the work without a valid citation.

If you own this paper and don't want it to be published on EduFrogs.com, you can ask for it to be taken down.

Ask for Removal
Cite this Essay


EduFrogs. (2021) 'Executive orders'. 31 October.


EduFrogs. (2021, October 31). Executive orders. Retrieved from https://edufrogs.com/executive-orders/


EduFrogs. 2021. "Executive orders." October 31, 2021. https://edufrogs.com/executive-orders/.

1. EduFrogs. "Executive orders." October 31, 2021. https://edufrogs.com/executive-orders/.


EduFrogs. "Executive orders." October 31, 2021. https://edufrogs.com/executive-orders/.

Work Cited

"Executive orders." EduFrogs, 31 Oct. 2021, edufrogs.com/executive-orders/.

Get in Touch with Us

If you have ideas on how to improve Executive orders, feel free to contact our team. Use the following email to reach to us: [email protected]