Essay, 11 pages (2500 words)

Final formal synthesis critical thinking sample

Arguably, leadership and being a leader are two concepts that are very important in every organization. It does not only entail experience, but also personal attributes that are either induced or natural. The progress of every organization in the world best depend on the type of leadership used, as well as the type of leader. In order to elaborate of how leadership works, there are various theories that have been constituted. In this case, leadership entails the use of various Strategies as well as ethical practices. Moreover, there are models of leadership that are applied in executing leadership, andleaders always use them as the basis of solving problems. Ever since the existence of the world, leadership has become a contentious issue, and it is as old as the existence of this planet. In fact, some of the philosophers and Greek writers such as Plato, Aristotle, and Socrates discussed leadership.

Significantly, from the discussions leadership entails how we relate and associate with others in society. Leadership comes up because there is a leader and those to be lead, absent of those to be lead makes leadership incomplete. Interestingly, it is important to comprehend the relationship between self and community. Certainly one of the best place to discus the real leadership is in a university, this is because it incorporates individuals from diverse backgrounds. Despite its importance, leadership has never found stability. For example, in most educational institutions leadership courses are not offered, or if it finds its way into the institution then in few units. Leadership appeared in writing in 1927, but the skills and issues of leadership had been put into practice long ago. In contemporary system of education, leadership has a discipline is housed in School of Business and Administration (Northouse, 2009).

Amazingly, scholars have never agreed on the real constituents of leadership. As a matter of fact, leadership is not statistical, but it entails more of emotional and rationality. In this case, it is crucial to study the relationship between rational and emotional issues of leadership. The study bridges the gap between organizational leadership on emotional and rational. The rationality of leadership is mostly sabotaged (Riggio & Conger, 2007).

Summarily, there are various major and influential theories of leadership; these include Great man theory (GMT), trait theory, behavior theory, group theory, situation theory, cont6igency theory, as well as excellence theory. These theories assert various ways in which individuals can achieve leadership skills and be a leader. For example, great man theory believes that if one studies what a great man is doing and emulates it then he/she will be a great leader too. These theories are more on how an individual can have leadership skills, and knowledge to lead.

Anxiety and adaptive learning are crucial concepts in leadership. As adults, we learn on anxiety feelings, but in most cases, people try by all means to avoid. Anxiety helps in an ingredient in change and learning process. In order to be a good leader, individuals should learn to contain group and individual anxiety (Luisser & Achua, 2009). Learning and containing anxiety that individuals carry is crucial. Freud defines anxiety as a signal of danger to the ego. Individuals need to understand the anxiety as a need to change, instead of interpreting it as a danger. Paradoxically, in terms of change and leadership, anxiety prevents the state of learning; while, on the other hand, it is a need to start learning. Therefore, when it is contained, anxiety becomes a source of learning and a tool of creativity.

In leadership, containing the level of anxiety is an art. The essential components of judging anxiety level include the ability to analyze the environs, and looking for clues. In summary, the graph demonstrates the anxiety level over time, and the level of anxiety that must be contains in order to come up with change.

Undeniably, there are various concepts that correlate with leadership in one way or another. These concepts are management, leaders, as well as authority. There are many leadership roles, and each one of it has its own influence, and skills. In terms of management, it is believed that there are many problems in all aspects of life. Therefore, we need the cooperation of leadership and management in solving these problems. These three concepts have overlaps in how it operates, but they are also unique and distinct. Some examples include the story of the two brothers and James Burns’s literature; it is a pure demonstration of how management and leadership work successfully. On the other hand, leader is an individual, while leadership is a process or the act. Moreover, authority is more of a positional power (Riggio & Conger, (2007).

In order to understand the dynamics and challenges facing leadership, groups, and organization, it is essential to comprehend the meaning of various concepts, which include groupthink, splitting, scapegoat, self-fulfilling prophecy, attribution theory, theories in use and espoused, as well as single and double-loop learning (Northouse, 2009). Groupthink comes about when highly cohesive and homogeneous group becomes more concern on its harmony and unity at the expense of evaluating options and alternatives on an issue. As a matter of fact, groupthink kills personal opinions, in the name of unity. Perhaps, Irving Janis stated various characteristics that a group involved with groupthink posses. According to these characteristics, it is evident that groupthink lead to dyfuctionalism in a group.

Anxiety can divide people on their projection and feelings. Individual may unconsciously causes individual or something to take up bad qualities and retains the good ones for themselves. This is a way, in which individuals try to assuage their own anxiety. The concept of splitting affects the groups also; the groups split up into subgroups, and every subgroup believes they are right (Riggio & Conger, 2007). Splitting in some occasion is advantageous because it brings in the sense of avoidance on envy, fear and competition. Moreover, scapegoat is also crucial concept in analyzing leadership; it is a group or a person that is made to take up punishment and blames for others undeservedly. It occurs in groups, especially in trying to manage anxiety. The group-in-the-mind are unlucky because they are excluded and subsequently attacked.

In tackling the concepts of leadership, self-fulfilling prophecy is a concept that is worth mentioning. It refers to a phenomenon of just expecting something to happen to lead to an increment of its probability to occur. For example, if someone expects you to be a leader, then the likelihood of them proposing you as a leader is increase. The phenomena have several impacts in how a group works. As a matter of fact, self-fulfilling prophecy can be a driver in various decision making scenarios in the group (Northouse, 2009). In every organization and individual, it is crucial to explain the distinctiveness of the world around them. Through these explanations, it makes it easy to control the environs better. Attribution theory asserts that the explanation is crucial in taking control. But, in most cases individuals make attribution errors by attaching praise and blame for both our failures and success. It is funny because, when we fail in life we blame external factors, but when others fail, we focus our blame on internal factors. This is very true in real life situations, especially ion groups. When a group fails, they blame certain departments; hence, the blaming behavior is real.

Dynamism in individuals and the group is critical; it is interesting the way individuals and groups review, implement and plan its activities. Theories in use and espoused determine the type of response individuals give. These theories of use and espoused need to be distinctively determined as it express the course of action. In laying down identities of the theories, reflection plays a significant role. Reflection brings up real actions, thoughts and feelings to the surface. Finally, single and double-loop learning occurs within organizations (Checkland, 1981). Certainly, when using single loop learning, current values, rules and mission are operationalized without questioning in solving a problem. On the other hand, double-loop learning holds current values, rules and mission for critics and scrutiny. Critically analyzed double-loop learning may destabilize the group. The scrutiny of the current issues may develop anxiety, which is something that groups avoid.

Considerably, in analyzing theories of leadership associated with ethical practices and strategies, the nature of the organization needs to be comprehended. In fact, in the entire study the leadership, leader, and theories of leadership are focused in establishing and understanding the nature of the organization. As a matter of fact, organizations present the complexity of individuals, there are those who would like to be leaders, while others are there to criticize and observe how leadership is exercised in an organization, Perhaps, hose individuals intending to be leaders should be ready to embrace conflicting thoughts, challenges and critics. Every organization in the globe depends on leaders in issues such as the clarity and conviction. Furthermore, it is essential to understand that an organization does not only depend on leaders, but also on other individual members of the group (Northouse, 2009).

In the 21st century, globalization presents organization with numerous challenges that need to be handled soberly to remain competitive, and achieve competitive advantage over other competitors in the field. Hundreds of years ago, human beings have shaped their lives on how they think on business organizations. The new millennium has even made more changes; everything has been mechanized to the extent that men think of themselves as the best mechanism of production. Within an organization, many components need to work together to complete the process. Such components include material resource, human resource as well as an energy resource. Leaders and human resource are expected to bring all these components together. Changes are always unpredictable and constant; therefore, organizations need to embrace changes, and be ready to face the challenges that come with it. Chaos theories can explain more on leadership and organization.

There is a comparison between the leadership ion the Newtonian and the image of leadership presented in science of twentieth science. Based on Newtonian believe and the twentieth century science, it is clear that the leadership and organizational strategies have changed. For example, in the Newtonian universe management is done by separating into parts, while the 20th century image focuses on systems as well as holism. Additionally, Newtonian universe are influenced by force, while in the 20th century relationship is the most crucial aspect. Other aspects of comparable changes include predictability, objectivity, materialization, boundaries as well as individual association (Checkland, 1981).

Significantly, the study of context of the new leadership is crucial has it shows the metamorphosis that leadership as a discipline and practice has undergone. The most comparable perspectives are the issues related to industrial and relationship age. In the industrial age, issues that come up include technical skills, control and command, competition, gaining advantage, gathering facts, wealth, hierarchy as well as holding of information. Based on this analysis, it is clear that leadership in the mechanical stage was more barbaric and static. On the other hand, the new era is the relationship stage where issues, ideas, and skills are more dynamic, and purpose driven (Luisser & Achua, 2009). Major differential concepts of relationship age to industrial age include people skills, discerning purpose, corporation and inspiration, finding meaning, circular, and dispersion of information. The old leadership was mostly based on place and position, while in the relationship stage leadership is based on trust. The significance of this difference demonstrates more knowledge on changes that have taken place in leadership and organizational management.

Through the study of living and leading in a chaotic world, one develops skills to face organizational issues with courage. Perhaps, the skills gained help in developing intellectual relationship and curiosity. Furthermore, it is essential because it develops an eye for numerous patters, spaces thinking, diversify on ideas and perspectives, be flexible as well as developing a sense of calmness and peace in handling issues. The sense of sovereignty, where an individual becomes responsible for the society and oneself is developing in such environment.

Ethically, it is essential to maintain leadership sanity. Exercising leadership is more of mobilizing people in addressing challenges. The topic is critical due to issues of anxiety. In addressing challenges, there is a possibility if creating anxiety in the organization and in individuals (Luisser & Achua, 2009). Hence, individuals and groups could respond by attacking, marginalization, isolation, as well as seduction. Being a leader, entails maintaining sanity and discipline in order to address the issue well. One way of managing sanity in leadership is through management of hunger.

Studies assert that leadership is not only a skill but a personal activity. Therefore, we need to face it on a personal level. Exercising leadership challenges individuals physically, spiritually, intellectually, and emotionally. The topic is significantly useful because hunger could be the main form of disruption that might lead to failing as a leader. There are various forms of temptation and hunger that could help leaders in management it includes power and control, affirmation and importance, and delight and intimacy (Checkland, 1981). Temptations and hunger can be managed only if we discover ourselves, and the truth on what we want then tribute them efficiently. Every leader has vulnerabilities, which should be compensated in other ways. Therefore, hunger and temptations can be managed through transitional rituals. Generally, sanity in leadership can be managed through management of hunger, personal anchoring, knowing what is on the line, as well as having a sacred heart.

The ultimate functioning of an organization need to incorporate system thinking in both management and leadership. The objectivity of the organization depends on the functioning of all departments. Undeniably, if one of the departments within an organization fails, then it implies that the entire organization may not achieve its indented goals. The game of chaos is perhaps the simulation of what transpires in real life. In this game, four aspects of System thing are included: models, actors, rules, and objectives (Northouse, 2009).

In our day to day activities, there are various avenues and situations that the study of various leadership ideas apply. Critically, in most case the components of leadership come into practice. In most situations, I understand that leadership is the need to incorporate various traits that need to be guided by ethics, experience, and personal traits. Additionally, leadership in daily scenario has been shaped to be a process where we socially influence, aid and support other people in the process of achieving certain intended goal. Application of leadership and spirituality come into practice through decision-making. In this case, we make decisions based on reason, purpose and objective. Perhaps, in making decisions we need to take in individual opinions in the group, and as a leader analyze the option and choose the best suitable for the organization and individual.

In everyday practice of leadership and spirituality , the courses become applicable in problem solving process. As a matter of fact, every organization has problems and face challenges. Challenges occur so that it can show the weakness and open ways o finding solutions. In most challenging scenarios, we understand that it develops anxiety, and we first handle the anxiety. During a state of anxiety, many people insult and abusive you as a leader; good leaders in this case need to manage hunger (Riggio & Conger, 2007).

Hunger and temptations can affect our leadership skills and ability to lead. In our day-to-day activities, hunger and temptation are part of leadership. For example, in one aspect of decision making relationship and intimacy became an inducer of hunger and temptation. Therefore, this course and topics helped in managing hungers and temptations. Generally, the topics in this course are applicable in everyday practiced spirituality and leadership.

In the future, I would like to learn various aspects of leadership. I believe that in every aspect of leadership, there are conflict and barriers that may hinder the leadership. Therefore, in the future I would like to learn more on barriers to good leadership, as well as earn more knowledge on how to solve problems and manage anxiety. On a more personal scenario, there are individuals who have some fear to be leaders, what are some of the strategies that could be used to overcome this fears.

In the 21st century, leadership demands and leadership changes greatly. Hence, i would like to learn on how to understand and adopt these dynamic and prompt changes as a leader. Inventions and innovations that affect leadership take place daily, and as a leader one is required to always be at par with technology. Moreover, I would like to learn more on the relevance of leadership theories in society today.

The unresolved matters in this course and study need to be addressed so that we can be good and efficient leaders. I propose to take creative initiatives on these unresolved problems in a more practical way. At least, I will work in a more practical way, in a situation where I am the leader and in cases where I am expected to be lead. I believe the exposure to a real life situation, will help in comprehending of these issues in a personal level, and be part of the problem and solution.


Checkland, P. (1981). Systems Thinking, Systems Practice. London: Wiley.
Luisser, R & Achua, C. (2009). Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill Development. New
York: Springer.
Northouse, P. (2009). Leadership: Theory and Practice. London: SAGE.
Riggio, R & Conger, A. (2007). The Practice of Leadership: Developing the Next Generation of

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