- Published: September 7, 2022
- Updated: September 7, 2022
- Language: English
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Discussion – For and Against Read the dialogue between Jim, Kate and Laura. Jim: I see the Russians are planning to go to Mars now. It makes me sick to think of all the money spent on space research. How can they throw money away like that when millions of people on Earth are hungry? Kate: I don’t think it’s thrown away. You can’t stop scientific progress. People naturally want to find out about other planets, and what we find out may be very useful to the human race in the future. Jim: But that doesn’t do us much good now, does it?
All that effort and expense to land two people on the Moon, and we found that that no one lives there, and we couldn’t, either. We know that already. Kate: Yes, but when I saw the film, I thought it was thrilling. It caught people’s imagination. And that’s why there have been so many technological advances in other areas. I’ve read that the investment has been repaid nine times. All the computers, even things like digital watches, have developed much faster because of space research. Jim: Well, they don’t feed hungry people or improve social services, either, do they? What do you think, Laura?
Laura: I think you are both right in a way, though personally I’m more on Kate’s side. The main argument in favor is that because it’s spectacular, it encourages research everywhere. Some things they have found out help cure people in hospital, for instance, so it does have a practical value now, not just in the future. But of course if you think that raising the standard of living of poor people in the world is the most urgent problem we need to solve, any expense on research that doesn’t affect that directly must seem wasteful. Now read Laura’s written version of this discussion.
Note (a) the way it is organized in paragraphs, (b) the order in which the discussion is presented, (c) the use of phrases that connect the argument. Space research is still a controversial issue. For some people, it is an exciting proof of man’s adventurous spirit, bringing scientific progress, while for others it is a waste of money that could be spent on improving living conditions here on Earth and solving the problems of poverty and hunger. This is the main argument against space research. The vast sums of money spent on it could be better used in other ways.
Apart from that, it is thought that the successful landing on the Moon, for example, although it was spectacular, did not advance human knowledge very much since we already knew it was uninhabited. On the other hand, those who defend space research argue that scientific progress is inevitable, and what is more, the effort to reach the Moon led to technological advances in other areas. Consequently, it is wrong to think that space research only benefits certain people because all kinds of everyday objects have developed faster because of it. It is therefore wrong to think that the money is wasted.
On balance, I am in favor of space research because of the advantages it has already brought in terms of life on Earth today, for instance in developing techniques in hospitals. Nevertheless, I sympathize with those who are so concerned about the condition of people in Third World countries that they would like to spend all the money available to governments on helping them. Exercise 1 Complete the article below comparing bicycles and scooters as a means of transport for teenagers by choosing from the list of connectors below. Only one word or phrase is correct.
Thirty years ago, most teenagers had bicycles, but now they are comparatively rare, and even those boys and girls who have them do not use them as often. ___(1)___ motor scooters are much more common. ___(2)___, this may seem a sign of progress but ___(3)___ the change is not necessarily for the better. It is easy to see why young people prefer scooters. ___(4)___, they are much faster and do not require much physical effort; ___(5)___, you can take a passenger with you on the pillion seat behind; ___(6)___, they give young people a feeling of independence because they can travel further and impress heir friends. ___(7)___, the disadvantages are equally obvious. ___(8)___, scooters are more expensive to buy and to maintain, and ___(9)___ those under 16 are not allowed to have them. ___(10___, greater freedom brings danger because speed encourages young people to take risks and ___(11)___ scooters are involved in more accidents, and the accidents are ___(12)___ more serious. Bicycles are safer and easier to control. Years ago, teenagers had more experience with them because they had learnt to ride as young children, and ___(13)___ knew what they were capable of. __(14)___, many young people overestimate what a scooter can do and pretend it has the power of a motorcycle. ___(15)___, ___(16)___ bicycles are not very safe, either, in cities these days because there are more cars and drivers are not used to them and do not make allowances for them. ___(17)___, those who are old enough to ride scooters naturally prefer them, but they should realize that they are the most dangerous form of transport on the road.
Those who are too young or cannot afford to buy a scooter probably find bicycles slow and uncomfortable ___(18)___, and riding a bicycle requires more experience of traffic than before. ___(19)___, the change has been for the worse, ___(20)___ for the 13- and 14-year-olds, but the only safe solution would be to have special lanes for cyclists. 1. (a) At the other end (b) On the contrary (c) On the other hand 2. (a)At first sight (b) In the beginning (c) In the first place 3. (a) apart from that (b) in fact (c) indeed 4. (a) At first (b) In the beginning (c) In the first place . (a) also (b) as well (c) secondly 6. (a) above all (b) mostly (c) over all 7. (a) Although (b) However (c) In spite 8. (a) At first sight (b) In principle (c) To begin with 9. (a) consequently (b) in any case (c) meanwhile 10. (a) Apart from that (b) As a result (c) On the other hand 11. (a) as a result (b) for this (c) secondly 12. (a) as well (b) generally (c) however 13. (a) consequently (b) for this (c) to begin with 14. (a) However (b) In contrast (c) On the contrary 15. (a) But (b) In spite (c) Nevertheless 16. (a) indeed (b) it is the fact that (c) the fact is that 7. (a) In the end (b) Lastly (c) To sum up 18. (a) by comparison (b) in contrast (c) on the other hand 19. (a) Above all (b) At last (c) On balance 20. (a) especially (b) generally (c) mostly A balanced article Look at the detailed plan below for a balanced article on animals in captivity. Use the points for and against to develop the subsequent paragraphs. If you can think of better arguments, include them or replace those given. Finally, use the notes to summarize points for and against in the last paragraph and include your personal opinion. Notes: 1.
Animals in captivity provide valuable educational experience. People would never see, recognize them in natural surroundings. 2. Zoos improved, animals better looked after, species preserved. 3. Situation still artificial. Animals have protected existence, sometimes no freedom. 4. Personal opinion. | For | Against | | Educational value, people | 1. Cruel, unnatural. Animals | | learn about animals, | kept in cages | | zoologists study habits | | | 2.
Preservation of species; | 2. Destroys natural abilities, | | rare animals may disappear. | changes behavior. Animals born| | Can often breed in captivity. | in zoos would die in the wild. | | Better food | | | 3. Zoos improved. More space. | 3. Even in safari parks, | | Advantages of safari parks. | limited space, not all animals| | Most animals can run about. | given freedom – e. g. Birds | | | like eagles. |
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