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Leader-managers essay sample essay

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In the beginning there was the word: leader-managers. I will get down this essay by briefly differentiate between a leader and a director.

A director has subsidiaries. significance he has power over the people under him. while a leader has followings. people who are willing to follow and non obliged to. Huband ( 1992 ) wrote that a director uses his authorization as a foreman to derive power while a leader uses his personal appeal to be a function theoretical account.

In this essay. we will presume that a director and a leader is the same individual. as in the existent universe. many people are both.

In the modern concern universe. there are many jobs that a trough might confront as the universe gets more and more complex. To derive a competitory border. directors are under force per unit area to execute and being a good director might non be hard but being a great one is what makes the difference.The three challenges that I decided to compose approximately are the challenges of keeping. effectual communicating and deciding struggle.

First I will speak about the challenge of keeping. and what directors do to retain employees.Retention means to maintain employees from go forthing the organisation. Retention is a challenge directors are confronting as talented employees are difficult to happen. and even harder to maintain. In a competitory market.

talented employees are sought after by many competitory organisations. Directors must understand that it is cheaper to develop a good employee than to pass money engaging one and that. and that good employees are as valuable and difficult to replace as a loyal client ( Nohria. Joyce & A ; Roberson 2003 ) . Retention besides makes certain that directors do non ever have to travel through the problem of recruiting and re-training new employees. An obvious manner to retain an employee is to maintain him or her happy and motivated.

I realized that keeping and motive are on the same boat as both have to make with maintaining employees happy. A recent canvass done by Paton ( 2007 ) tells us that employee keeping is at the highest precedence for most houses in the US.Motivation is one of the most effectual ways to maintain an employee loyal andproductive. There are many ways to actuate employees such as wagess and inducements.

giving them opportunity for publicity. give them more duty or acknowledgment. occupation security and much more. Different employees are motivated by different things.

One of the most influential motivational theories is Maslow’s hierarchy of demands ( appendix 1 ) . Maslow’s theory is a hierarchy of things employees look out for in a work topographic point. In the lowest hierarchy are the physiological demands. followed by the safety needs.

societal demands. self-esteem demands and eventually the self-actualization demands. Physiological demands are the basic demands like nutrient. shelter and vesture. Normally physiological demands can be satisfied by money as money can supply us with nutrient.

shelter and vesture. Other than money. people would besides be motivated by wagess and incentive strategies. Incentive and wagess strategies motivate and show how valuable employees are to the organisation ( Your Peoples Manager 2004 ) . Example of inducement strategies are fillips and excess staff vacations.

Safety demands or security demands are the demand to be secure. both at place and in the work topographic point. To make this. directors can offer occupation security and giving them medical benefits like dental programs. Social demands are the demand to belong to a group and overcome solitariness. This could be achieved in the work topographic point by making a friendly work environment free from favoritisms.

Directors can besides form societal events for employees to socialise or hold a good initiation plan for new employees. Self-esteem demands are the demand to be respected or recognized by their equals. Directors can accomplish this by acknowledging and praising employees for a occupation good done. Another manner is advancing or giving employees particular rubrics like undertaking director or squad director.

Last. self-actualization demands are the demand of recognizing one’s ain potency or self-realization. This could be done done publicity as publicity give employees opportunity to recognize their ain potency. Directors could besides give employees more freedom in the manner they do their occupation. In Maslow’s theory. he believes that people frequently try to fulfill the lower degree of demands first.

and so progresss to the following degree of demands.Directors need to understand the demands of the employees and cognize how to fulfill all degree of demands as. if an employee believes that any of those demands couldn’t be achieve in the current organisation. he or she will most likely lose the motive to work in that organisation. In short. a director needs to cognize how to actuate the employees.

Maslow’s theory are supported by Huband ( 1992 ) as he wrote that an effectual director must acknowledge that money or wagess are non ever the chief incentive and that most directors themselves are motivated by accomplishment. acknowledgment. disputing work. promotion. occupation growing. and duty.

This shows that higher degree of demands is more of import than the lower degree of demands once you have satisfied them. To farther support this are the work of Shenkel and Gardner ( 2004 ) who found out that to retain good employees. directors must offer than more than merely nice rewards and benefits. Shenkel and Gardner ( 2004 ) did a canvass and found out that positive.

caring relationships. acknowledgment of accomplishment. pride in the organisation and chances for growing and promotion are the major factor in the employees remaining in the organisation. Those four factors are related to societal demands. self-esteem demands and self-actualization demands. Hughes ( 2003 ) besides states that although wagess and inducements are critical.

employees want to experience successful and professionally fulfilled. and these factors are keys to keeping and long-run trueness.Training is another manner to retain employees. Harmonizing to Fast ( 2004 ) . given proper preparation and a opportunity for publicity or development. most employees are happy to remain in their current occupation.

Training makes an employee think that the organisation value the employee adequate to pass the organization’s money for the employee’s preparation. This can be farther supported by Vowler ( 2005 ) who wrote that preparation is non merely a manner to retain employees but besides a manner to avoid enlisting costs and cut down absenteeism. Sending employees for farther instruction besides helps in retaining employees and shows that the organisation values the employees.Lack of trueness is largely because of the company and non because of the employees ( Martin 2007 ) . What it means is that such company is non making plenty to retain employees.

Nohria. Joyce & A ; Roberson ( 2003 ) wrote that goodsuccessful companies are the 1 that dedicate clip and resources to edifice and retaining an already bing effectual work force and direction squad. Staff keeping does non ever have to be expensive as effectual communicating is besides a manner to retain and actuate employees. which will be discussed in the following subdivision. Mentoring is besides another manner. Hughes ( 2003 ) wrote that mentoring helps the initiation procedure for new employees and besides demonstrates the organization’s committedness to develop the employees.

Mentoring can be done by partner offing up fledglings or energetic employees with an experient respected employee ( wise man ) in the organisation. This manner it helps the employee’s development and gives the wise man a opportunity to assist other people ( self-actualization demands ) .The 2nd challenge I would speak about is the jobs relation to effectual communicating. Bean ( 2002 ) wrote that effectual communicating can advance employee keeping while assisting the concern run more expeditiously and construct a good relationship with clients. There are two types of communicating: verbal and non-verbal communicating. Non-verbal communications are message we sent without speech production and this includes organic structure linguistic communication or facial look.

Non-verbal communications are every bit of import as verbal communications as a batch could be perceived by our facial look entirely. Effective communicating is hard because there are many ways to decrypt a simple message. For illustration. a simple message such as ‘What do you necessitate? ’ can be conveyed as an guiltless inquiry or a hostile one depending on the tone or the facial look of the communicator. Geting your message across the manner you meant it is the basic thought of effectual communicating. There are many barriers to effectual communicating such as linguistic communication.

cultural differences or even premises.The pick of linguistic communication in which a transmitter uses is really of import as when the incorrect picks of word or linguistic communication are used. misunderstanding will probably happen. Understanding cultural differences is besides critical for directors as different civilization have different civilization. reading of words and body-language. A good theory to understand cultural differences is the Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory.

For illustration in many eastern states. edifice relationships are every bit critical as shuting a trade itself. Dvorak ( 2006 )wrote that most western companies would easy exchange providers to cut cost while in most Asiatic states. it would be harder to make that as directors or executives frequently have longstanding or personal relationships with their opposite numbers at providers. Premise is a common barrier to effectual communicating.

Often. we assume that everyone feels the same or has the same sentiments as us. An illustration would be a manager’s premise that most employees are motivated by money entirely. and non understanding the higher degree of demands like self-pride and self-actualization demands.

Another good illustration of how people tend to have message otherwise from different people is an illustration of a message sent by a director or his equals. A message such as ‘Can you help me in making this undertaking? ’ can be received otherwise. depending on who the transmitter is. Obviously. a director inquiring that would most probably be perceived as a bid from above authorization while if coming from his fellow equals.

it would be merely a petition for aid.Paying attending to the manner other communicate in an organisation and the context of a message. holding a good communicating channel and leting chances for feedback are ways to better communicating in an organisation ( US Fed News Service. Including US State News 2007 ) . Huband ( 1992 ) wrote that an effectual director is a good communicator and for communicating to be effectual. feedbacks are needed to guarantee understanding between directors and employees.

Employee’s feedbacks and sentiments are of import for effectual communicating as this promotes treatment and interaction within the organisation. Directors should ever promote communicating and have good channel of communicating throughout the organisation. Communication should non be obstructed irrespective of the degree of hierarchy held by forces in the organisation. Dwyer ( 2005 ) wrote that to avoid premises. we should ever pass on how we feel. For illustration.

Bob made a gag about a serious issue and everybody had a good laugh. John might experience pained but does non demo or speak about it. To forestall misinterpretation. John should speak to Bob about it and state that he has been offended as Bob merely assume that John is all right with the gag.

This will better relationship between them as Bob will understand John a little more. If John decided to maintain it and ne’er speak about it. he might easy turn to dislike Bob. It is a misinterpretation as Bob was merely jesting and did nonmean to pique anyone.

Marshall ( 2005 ) farther supports this position as she wrote “we need to larn to talk our heads while non estranging our colleagues. ” Marshall ( 2005 ) besides states that uneffective communicating will do employees to be demotivated. cut down productiveness and do bitterness among employees.Manager should besides acknowledge the accomplishment of effectual hearing and how it helps effectual communicating.

Many people think listening is easy but it is really non. The basic regulation of effectual hearing is that two people should ne’er speak at one time as effectual communicating can merely happen when person is really listening. An effectual hearer will non speak when person is speaking. expression at the individual speaking to him.

absorb and grok the message and so answer. Rega ( 2000 ) place non taking an attempt to listen and being distracted by the manner the individual negotiations as common errors of listening efficaciously. Directors should understand this and concentrate when listening to employees and non worry about how the individual negotiations. Leftwich ( 2005 ) wrote that there is a difference between hearing and listening.

Listening is when you make an attempt to listen and to the full understand the message while hearing is merely having the message. and seeking to tune it out of your head. for illustration employees being lectured by the director. The employee is hearing what the director is stating but non taking any of the messages in. To avoid this.

the director should cognize how to pass on decently with the employee. Alternatively of talking him. he should prosecute in a conversation and speak about the job. non talk.Bean ( 2002 ) wrote that effectual communicating can be introduced in an organisation utilizing a 3 measure process: take a system.

develop a process and eventually follow the process. The first measure. taking a system means to take a channel of communicating that fits the organisation. for illustration utilizing electronic mail.

The 2nd measure is to develop a process. for illustration. everyone in the organisation should look into their email daily as a demand. The 3rd measure is to follow the process and do look intoing email daily as a wont and portion of the corporate civilization. Different organisations have different communicating manners and methods.

Directors have to cognize how to utilize communicating decently and utilize it as a manner to actuateand construct relationships. Effective communicating will besides cut down struggle between employees in the workplace.The 3rd challenge that I will compose is the challenge of deciding struggle. Conflict in the workplace is about inevitable as people have different sentiments. thoughts or personalities. The most common ground for struggle are identified as Gatlin.

Wysocki & A ; Kepne ( 2002 ) identified conflicting demands. conflicting manners. conflicting perceptual experience. conflicting ends. conflicting force per unit areas.

conflicting functions. different personal values and unpredictable policies as the chief ground for struggle in a workplace.There are five schemes that can be used to pull off struggle and this is shown in the Thomas & A ; Kilmann’s Conflict Management Style Model ( appendix 2 ) . In the theoretical account we have five schemes. which are self-asserting ( coaction ) .

via media. aggressive ( competition ) . adjustment and turning away. Collaboration is a win-win scheme. which is used when concern for others and concern self are high.

This is normally the best attack to pull off struggle ; nevertheless it takes a batch of clip and attempt. What is does is happen the best solution for both parties. Directors can make this by effectual hearing and pass oning without being endangering. Compromise is when both parties meet in the center and accept a solution which favors no 1. Managers must cognize how to negociate and be every bit just as possible in this scheme.

Adopting the aggressive ( competition ) scheme is about being aggressive and people following this scheme merely attention about personal addition while giving small concern for others. Aggressive schemes normally will take to statements and bitterness if both parties decided to utilize aggressive scheme. Accommodation scheme is when concern for one-self is low and are ready to give in to others’ demands. This is a good scheme to maintain harmoniousness in a work topographic point but a director shouldn’t usage this scheme frequently as he will lose power. The last scheme is the turning away scheme which is seeking to avoid declaration of struggle at all.

This is the worst scheme out of the five as avoiding declaration of struggle will do build-up bitterness indoors. Gliken ( 2007 ) wrote that employees should decide a difference every bit shortly as it starts. This is farther supported by Rau-Foster ( 2000 ) who wrote that “unresolved struggle can ensue in feelings of dissatisfaction. sadness.hopelessness.

depression. and other emotions. ”Out of the five schemes. directors should ever seek to utilize coaction and via media scheme as both schemes help with happening the best solution for both parties. Effective directors should be able to set other’s demands in par with their ain or even at certain clip.

usage suiting scheme to set other’s concern in front. When work outing struggle. directors should ever stay unagitated and just if struggles are between employees. As we have discussed. effectual communicating is one of the best manner to decide struggle.

Directors should seek to do employees speak about their jobs with each other and seek to happen a good solution. Directors should ever seek to decide struggle and non avoid them. Gliken ( 2007 ) wrote that we should non presume that people don’t want to decide struggle. Conflict is non all that negative as it could so further relationship after deciding it.

To decently decide struggle directors should understand that every employee is different and that causes struggles. A great director should cognize all his employees good and cognize how to decide struggle between his employees.The challenges of keeping. effectual communicating and resolution struggles are complex challenges that leader-managers face mundane in the workplace.

There is no 1 certainly method to work out the each of the jobs but every bit mentioned above. an effectual leader-manager should be a good communicator. a good incentive and understand the demands and personality of each and every one of the employees under him or her.Mentions:Bean. DL 2002.

‘Training your staff and yourself to pass on effectively’ . National Underwriter. ( Life. health/financial services edition ) . Erlanger: vol.

106. issue 11. p11.Dvorak. P 2006.

‘More Asiatic Firms Adopt Western Management Theory’ . CareerJournal. com. viewed 14 April 2007 & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. careerjournal. com/columnists/theorypractice/20060530-theorypractice.

hypertext markup language & gt ;Dwyer. D 2005. ‘Building squad communication’ . Professional Remodeler. vol.

9. issue 7. p27.Fast. G 2004.

‘A TEAM attack to retention’ . L & A ; T Health and Fitness. viewed 14 April 2007. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.

ltwell. com/retain_good_staff. htm & gt ;Gatlin. J. Wysocki.

A. & A ; Kepner. K 2002. ‘Understanding struggle in the workplace’ .

University of Florida. viewed 14 April 2007. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //edis. ifas. ufl.

edu/HR024 & gt ;Glicken. MD 2007. ‘How to decide struggle with your co-workers’ . Career Journal. viewed 14 April 2007. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.

careerjournal. com/myc/survive/19971231-glicken. hypertext markup language & gt ;Huband. EA 1992. ‘Developing effectual direction skills’ . Management Accounting ( USA ) .

vol. 74. no. 1.

pp. 43.Hughes. L 2003. ‘Motivating your employees’ . Women in Business.

vol. 55. issue 2. p17.Leftwich. S 2005.

‘Now hear this’ . Black Enterprise. vol. 35. Publish 8.

p112-113.Marshall. T 2005. ‘7 stairss to communication success’ . Manage Online.

vol. 3 Issue 3. p7.Martin. C 2007.

‘Managers want more liberty and challenge’ . CIO. viewed 14 April 2007. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.

Congress of Industrial Organizations. com. au/index. php/id ; 948150263 & gt ;Norhia.

N. Joyce. W & A ; Roberson B 2003. ‘What truly works’ . Harvard Business Review. vol.

81. no. 7. pp.

42 -52.Paton. N 2007. ‘Retention a bigger challenge than commanding costs’ . Management Issues. viewed 10 April 2007.

hypertext transfer protocol: //www. management-issues. com/2007/2/27/research/retention-a-bigger-challenge-than-controlling-costs. asp & gt ;Rau-Foster.

M 2000. ‘Conflict in the workplace’ . Work Place Issues. viewed 14 April 2007. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. workplaceissues.

com/arconflict. htm & gt ;Rega. ME 2000. ‘Developing listening skills’ . American Salesman.

vol. 45. issue 5. p3.Shenkel.

R & A ; Gardner. C 2004. ‘5 Ways to Retain Good Staff’ . American Academy of Family Physicians. viewed 14 April 2007.

& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. aafp. org/fpm/20041100/57five. hypertext markup language & gt ;US Fed News Service.

Including US State News. 2007. ‘University of Northern Iowa Jockey shortss – Effective communicating of import for concern success’ . US Fed News Service. Including US State News. Washington.

D. C. . Jan 18.Vowler.

Julia 2005. ‘How effectual preparation AIDSs staff keeping. ( information engineering professionals developing direction ) ’ . Computer Weekly.

Nov 15. pp. 40.Your Peoples Manager 2004. ‘Retain good employees by utilizing inducement and wages schemes’ . Your People Manager.

viewed 14 April 2007. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. yourpeoplemanager. com/YebBqLBoTX_-WA.

hypertext markup language & gt ;APPENDIX 1_Sources: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. omafra. gov. on. ca/english/rural/facts/96-001. htm_APPENDIX 2_THOMAS & A ; KILMANN’S CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLE MODEL__Sources: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.

mftrou. com/workplace-conflict-management-strategy. html_

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