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Low pressure drip irrigation techniques environmental sciences essay

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INTRODUCTION

Agricultural water administration can help to tumbling starvation and scarcity in the emergentworld. It reimburses both rural and urban poor. But most developing countries lack the capabilityto enable their farmers, smallholders and other stakeholders to utilize the technologies offeredand to apprehend the remuneration of irrigation. IPTRID is an autonomous multi-donor trust-fund program hosted by FAO in its head office inRome. It provides support to developing countries and development agencies for the formulationand achievement of sustainable agricultural water management strategies and Programs. IPTRID aims to shrink rural and urban poverty, augment food security and increaseenvironmental sustainability by improving the contact of farmers’ farmers’ associations andservice providers to proper irrigation, drainage, water harvesting, salinity management and floodmanagement technologies and practices. One of the most effectual ways in which peripheral agencies can hold up farmers is to assistgovernments and the private sector to recognize capacity constraints and to take action andconfiscate them. IPTRID works with worldwide partners to do this. It chains capacity building inagricultural water management to promote irrigation technology transfer and acceptance in its

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widest sense. It provides advisory services and technical support to countries and developmentagencies to assist them:• Devise sustainable regional, national and sub-national agricultural watermanagement strategies and programs inside their poverty lessening strategies• Identify, formulate and implement capacity building projects that allow farmers, farmers’ associations, service providers and institutions to obtain full benefit ofimproved water management technologies and practicesIPTRID advance is participatory, driven by stipulate from side to side listening and reacting tothe issues and priorities being raised by the on the rise countries.

BACKGROUND AND JUSTIFICATION

Agriculture in Syria is a prevailing economic sector. It contributes about 32% to the GDP, andemploys nearly 31% of the labor force, with another 50% of the manufacturing force reliant on itfor employment. The country accounted for a inhabitants of 16. 3 million in 2000 and is swiftlyon the rise at a rate of 2. 37%. Food sanctuary through increased crop production is in the middle of the highest priorities of thegovernment which accords a lofty concentration to the subject and provides hold up to theenlargement of agriculture and rural development, predominantly in the densely populated areas. Irrigation forms the strength of character of sustainable agricultural progress and national foodsanctuary and buffers the agricultural sector against climatic variability and water deficiency. Itis also a means of growing the economic income from agriculture and tumbling production risks. The cultivated land area in Syria was anticipated at 5. 5 million ha in 2000, which accountedabout 30% of the total country vicinity. 20% of the cultivated land area (1. 2 million hectares)was irrigated. The total irrigated area augmented from 650, 000 ha in 1985 to 1. 3 million ha in2002. This noteworthy expansion of irrigation is mainly attributed to the swift increase in

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groundwater irrigation. 60 percent of all irrigated area in Syria is currently irrigated bygroundwater, which are all in private developed and operated. The prime method of irrigation is the conventional surface technique by means of an overallcompetence bellow 50%. Modern and potentially high competent methods are restricted and theoverall losses coupled with the customary irrigation methods are high. The condition asdescribed, associated with customary irrigation practices and on-farm water management, created productive conditions for the application of amounts of water remote in surplus of croprequirements. The swift increase in the irrigated area and the loss of outsized quantities of water throughmostly squat efficiency, traditional methods of function have led to an overall deficiency ofwater resources and chiefly an alarming decline in groundwater levels. Mindful of these issues and of the need to maintain agricultural production and rural income, particularly for small farmers, through the sustainable management and most favorableutilization of the natural resources, the Syrian government has adopted an approach aimed, amongst other objectives, at: sustainable water resources and irrigation development to meet thegrowing demand from agriculture and other water user sectors; and optimal utilization andpreservation of water resources in irrigation as a main concern for national food security, throughthe introduction of improved irrigation methods and water control and management tool. The government of Syria through the Ministry of Irrigation devised in 2001 a determined planinvesting about 32 billion Syrian Pounds (600 million US$) for the next 4 years on therehabilitation and upgrading of old irrigation projects to perk up conveyance competence andminimize allocation losses through converting open irrigation canal systems to pressurized pipesystems and regenerate lined canal systems. It also adopted the upgrading policy at ground leveland positive farmers to change to up to date irrigation techniques by providing tax-free low-interest loans to cover the capital costs of up to date techniques and technical counsel on the

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accomplishment and use of such systems. However, the level of acceptance of these techniquesis still squat due to the lack of assurance amongst farmers in the probable financial return fromthe use of such techniques that validate the investment and effort associated, the lack of insightof the new techniques amongst farmers, the lack of benefits amongst farmers to invest inefficient on farm irrigation system, the insufficient technical support by extension services, andthe inapt interface between the public distribution system and the highly developed on farmirrigation systems. Several studies by international organizations (IPTRID, FAO, World Bank, UNDP), however, have exposed that the government strategy of generalizing modern irrigation technologies mayonly be sustainable for intermediate term and gains in water deficits may not be noteworthy. Thestrategy has come up nonspecific and was not differentiable in accordance to basins that are mostcritical in water deficits, type of modern techniques, land size, and adequacy according to thelocal conditions. Regrettably, the projects of the NGOs in support of the government policy on modernization, like the FAO/TCP 8922, have come up also nonspecific and did not achieve generous results onground. For example, the FAO/TCP 8922 project, though it obtained hopeful early results but itdid not completely bring the aimed harvest and, therefore, an extension phase was recommended. The main drawbacks of this project rose in its groundwork evaluation report and may sustain thejustification for the current planned project is:• Numerous technical errors in terms of blueprint and installation of the equipment• Deficiencies in terms of proper design• Process of exhibition, training, awareness and evaluation did not defer the samelevel of accomplishment for drip as compared to sprinkler• Difficulties in adapting the new techniques by farmers• Low feat in terms of design and process

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It is concluded that there is an imperative need to improve knowledge amongst all parties andbridging the gap for the well-organized application of the new techniques. It is supposed that thelack of farmers’ confidence in the modern techniques is due to the fear of their superiority, thedeficiency of knowledge on them, and their high cost. The current proposal, however, takes the above mentioned drawbacks and results into reflection, looks at the subject from different angles, and applies a differentiated approach. It focuses ondrip irrigation as an ideal solution for water saving in critical basins with small land sizes andvegetables/horticultural crop patterns, e. g. Damascus basin. It aims to initiate the concept ofmaking drip technique reasonable by marketing off-the-shelf kits that irrigate small plots and tohaul up the fear of chic technology by providing so called ” customized” drip systems that areeasy to install, operate and maintain, and do not require a pumped supply. The project will offer low cost/low pressure tiny scale irrigation equipment and techniques atfarmers’ level, educate selected technicians of the Directorate of Irrigation and Water Use(DIWU) of the Ministry of Agriculture (National Counterpart), train selected farmers on the newtechniques, supervise performance of the new techniques, and assessing the practicability ofimplementation and the possibility of extrapolation. A pre-selection of the basin targeted for thefunction of the low cost/low pressure small drip irrigation techniques have been earmarked butadditional defining of the pilot sites will be established. The average farm size to be equippedwith the innovative techniques would be 3-5 Diana. A responsiveness/preliminary trainingworkshop will be held primarily inviting farmers, organizations working with agricultural sector, and the DIWU staff. A participatory loom will be used to determine the farmer’s needs duringthis workshop. Additional detailed training workshops of 1-2 days on the irrigation systems forfarmers will also be held in group effort with DIWU. The irrigation system when installed willbe provided by the project to the farmers on the considerate that if farmers are satisfied, theywould have to acquire it at the end of the project at a definite percentage of the cost. The moneypaid will go in a revolving fund to expand the system to other farmers who would like to be

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involved in water organize and small scale irrigation in the future, and ensure permanence ofirrigation work. It is, however, expected that the project will include the thrust to ensuring field level results, theacceptance of the new techniques by farmers through applying a participatory field approach, and the effective augmentation of capacities at both institutional and farming community levels. Eventually, the development of low cost/low pressure irrigation techniques will contribute to theenhancement of water use efficiency, the sustainability of water supply utilization, the boost ofagricultural production and farm income and, hence, the empowerment of rural community.

OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

The objective of the project is to review the economic and technical viability of implementinglow cost/low pressure micro irrigation technique in Syria on a pilot basis in chosen water-deficitareas and to introduce the perception of ” Kit” to the irrigated agriculture sector in Syria. Theproject will reveal and endorse appropriate low cost/low pressure micro irrigation techniques, offer training to technicians and farmers on the new techniques, review their feasibility, andrepresent lessons and recommendations for long term submission/use of these techniques in theirrigated agriculture sector of Syria. The precise objectives of the project are:• Selected number of kits is installed on a preferred number of plots according to landdimension and cropping pattern• Selected number of technicians is educated on low cost/low pressure micro irrigationtechniques• Selected number of farmers is educated on low cost/low pressure micro irrigationtechniques

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• The performance of the latest techniques for one season is monitored• Conclusions and recommendation are haggard on the viability of implementation andthe possibility of extrapolation to other basins.

OUTCOMES OF THE PROJECT

The expected outputs from this project will be: First Outcome: Execute and exhibit low cost/low pressure drip irrigation techniques at thefarmers’ level• 12 plastic water tanks installed• 12 low cost/low pressure small scale micro irrigation systems establish on plotscovering a total area of 60 Diana’s• Irrigation procedures and addition materials for use by extension workers andfarmers developedSecond Outcome: Educate selected farmers and technicians/officers from the Directorate ofIrrigation and Water Use (DIWU) of the Ministry of Agriculture on the techniques, methods andaccomplishment of low cost/low pressure small scale drip irrigation systems• 20 or more farmers and DIWU technicians/officers taught on low cost/lowpressure small scale drip irrigation techniques and its utilization• Technological and universal supporting role to small scale farmers strengthenedThird Outcome: Review economic and technical feasibility of executing low cost/lowpressure small scale drip irrigation systems and recognize areas for possible extrapolation• Low charge pressure small scale drip irrigation techniques performancemonitored for one irrigation time

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• Conclusions on the technological and profitable feasibility of low cost/lowpressure small scale irrigation techniques careworn• Worldwide record of critical areas in Syria prepared where water is in shortageand small level irrigation systems can be appliedFourth Outcome: Identify a framework of small scale drip irrigation development in Syria• Premeditated guidelines for the development of small scale drip irrigation in Syriaintricate

WORK PLAN

The project will wrap numerous activities to be undertaken in teamwork with the Directorate ofIrrigation and Water Use (DIWU) of the Ministry of Agriculture within a total duration of 10months. A detailed work plan with the particulars of each activity listed bellow will be equippedat the beginning of the project.• Classify national counterparts and allocate National Project Coordinator• First call by Project Manager (IPTRID) and the Small Scale Irrigation

Technical Consultant

• Classify field sites where irrigation techniques could be implemented• Acquire material and equipment required for irrigation. This is a low cost/lowpressure limited to a small area irrigation system (kit). Water is distributed underlow pressure (1-2 meters of water head) hooked on bi-wall drippers. The pressurenecessary can be obtained from an eminent tank that can be provided by the localmarket (plastic tanks)• Categorize a local workshop in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture toelucidate low cost/low pressure small scale drip irrigation systems

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• Second call by the project manager to focus the workshop and prepare setting upone low cost/low pressure drip irrigation system at a DIWU Research Station• Lay down and ascertain one low cost/low pressure small scale drip irrigationsystem at a DIWU Research Station• Third call by the project manager to control setting up systems on sites• Lay down and ascertain low cost/low pressure small scale drip irrigation systems onselected sites within Damascus Basin. The approach to be taken would vary according tothe local setting of each site and more than one selection or combination of systems couldapply• Grounding of conservatory material in collaboration with local counterparts for use byextension officers and farmers• Fourth call of the project manager to contribute in the preparation of the trainingactivities and the field day• Second call of the Small Scale Irrigation Technical Consultant to contribute in thegrounding of the training activities and the field day• Classify training needs and arrange training of selected national staff and farmers on lowcost/low pressure small scale drip irrigation techniques• Carry out Farmers Field Day at the DIWU Research Station for supplementary farmers toexamine the irrigation system• Evaluate the progress of the site irrigation systems to uphold the progress of the project• Investigate finding and results and draw preface conclusions• Fifth call of project manager to contribute in the preparation and attending the ending ofproject workshop• Third call of the Small Scale Irrigation Technical Consultant to partake in the closingstages of project workshop• Manage end of project workshop

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• Set up final report and submit terminal statement• Set up the strategic guidelines for the enlargement of small scale drip irrigation in Syria

CAPACITY BUILDING COMPONENTS

The capacity building attempt in this project is verified by the augmentation of the humanresource capabilities through the training of national staff and farmers on suitable low cost/lowpressure small scale drip irrigation techniques. The guidance activities include:• Preliminary workshop to enlighten low cost/low pressure small scale drip irrigationtechniques• Training on low cost/low pressure small scale irrigation techniques for national staff andpreferred farmers who will later become trainers for other farmers in their owncommunities• Field days for all farmers and manifestation at the DIWU Research Station for fascinatedfarmers• Ending of project workshop to share conclusions and results of the project and toillustrate recommendations

IPTRID/FAO INPUT

Personnel services:

• Consultant-Project Manager with proficiency in water resource management and smallscale irrigation development for 4 months and 5 undertakings to Syria• Consultant-for technological backing on Affordable Micro Irrigation Techniques forSmall Scale Irrigation for 1 month and half and 3 undertakings to Syria

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Equipment:

• Confined to a small area irrigation equipment• Motor pumps along with accessories• Farming equipment (tiller, rigger, topographical equipment, etc)

Materials and supplies:

• Materials and supplies for tanks and fixing• Materials and supplies for the in-country workshops

General operating expenses:

• Expenses linked to project operation i. e telephone, fax, photocopying, etc• Facsimile of reports and terminal testimony research

Training:

• Charge of 1 Day preliminary Training Workshop for farmers and national staff• Charge of 3 Day In-Country Workshop for farmers, DIWU selected staff, and agriculturalextension officers• Charge of 2 day End-Of-Project Workshop for farmers, DIWU staff, and agriculturalextension officers• Charge for an supplementary training workshop that may be requested throughout theaccomplishment of the project

Support cost:

• Express operating expenditure at the FAO headquarter related to the accomplishment ofthe project

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SYRIAN MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE INPUT

Directorate of Irrigation and Water Use (DIWU) of the Ministry of Agriculture in Syria(National Counterpart) will be conscientious for the following:• At a predetermined term charge and as soon as the project accord is signed, a nationalconsultant will be recruited to proceed as a National Coordinator of the project and towork under the administration of the project manager and in close collaboration with theDIWU for the implementation of the project• Assign an office room and facilities for the National Project Coordinator throughout theepoch of the project• At no cost to the project, the DIWU will offer backing and services in theaccomplishment of the project• Be accountable for receiving all the project materials, supplies and equipment into Syriafree of taxation• Systematize and synchronize training workshops as well as logistic support forparticipants• Grant pilot irrigation site owed for the rationale of the project• Make sure uninterrupted demonstrations to farmers after the extinction of the project

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