The first requirement in treating a client with Anorexia, is to restore their health.
It is imperative that they receive a medical from their GP. This is important because if they have a BMI (Body Mass Index) of 17 or below, they cannot start treatment due to the effect the weight loss has on the brain. This is done through weight gain and improved eating habits, however often anorexics will refuse treatment as the make-up of the eating disorder is about control and the clients control over their eating and body perception.
For some, weight gain will have to be forced, through hospitalization and/or tubule feeding. Once the starvation process is reversed, psychotherapy can begin in order to address the psychological issues behind the eating disorder. If there has been some serious health damage they may either need to be admitted to a general ward for physical symptoms or to a psychiatric unit and any future therapy is completed in conjunction with a nutritionist and medical doctor. These four core features enable us to better differentiate between a normal, healthy personality from one that is not:??? Extreme and distorted thinking patterns including disturbances in self-image??? Problematic emotional response patterns including an inappropriateness range of emotion??? Impulse control problems such as over-spending, drinking, sex, gambling??? Significant interpersonal problems including an inability to have a successful interpersonal relationshipThe four core features common to all personality disorders and before a diagnosis is made, a person must demonstrate significant and enduring difficulties in at least two of these four areas above.
Besides the four core features associated with the general diagnostic category of personality disorders, there are 10 specific personality disorders identified and each is defined by a unique set of criteria reflecting observable characteristics associated with that disorder. The DSM-IV-TR identifies and describes the 10 specific diagnoses of personality disorders of enduring patterns or constellations of personality traits, and characteristic ways of thinking, feeling and behaving that rise to a level of disorder. Split personality otherwise known as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) or Multiple Personality Disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a condition in which a person displays multiple distinct identities or personalities (known as alter egos or alters), each with its own pattern of perceiving and interacting with the environment.
The diagnosis of DID involves the disruption of identity characterized by two or more distinct personality states or an experience of possession, as evidenced by discontinuities in sense of self, cognition, behaviour, affect, perceptions, and/or memories. This disruption may be observed by others, or reported by the patient. Inability to recall important personal information, for everyday events or traumatic events, that is inconsistent with ordinary forgetfulness and causes clinically significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
The disturbance is not a normal part of a broadly accepted cultural or religious practice and is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e. g., blackouts or chaotic behaviour during alcohol intoxication) or a general medical condition (e.
g., complex partial seizures). Those diagnosed with DID demonstrate a variety of conditions with wide fluctuations across time; functioning can vary from severe impairment in daily functioning to normal or high abilities and can include: Multiple mannerisms, attitudes and beliefs which are not similar to each other personalitiesUnexplainable headaches and other body pains Distortion or loss of subjective time Comorbidity Depersonalization – a feeling of watching oneself act, while having no control over a situationDe-realization – an alteration in the perception or experience of the external world so that it seems strange or unrealSevere memory loss Depression Flashbacks of abuse/trauma Sudden anger without a justified cause Frequent panic/anxiety attacks Unexplainable phobias – an irrational, intense and persistent fear of certain situations, activities, things, animals, or peopleAuditory of the personalities inside their mind Paranoia – a thought process thought to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of irrationality and delusion. Patients may also experience an extremely broad array of other conditions that may appear to resemble epilepsy, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, post traumatic stress disorder, personality disorders, and eating disorders.