CRM1310Learning & Control Theories Catriona WoolnerAims of LectureHousekeeping Introduce Social Process Theory: Including: Learning, Culture Conflict and Social Control Outline underlying assumptions, principles and objectives Explore critiques Guest SpeakerSocial Process TheoriesUnderlying Assumptions: Criminality is a function of individual socialisation Interaction of individuals with more immediate groups is key to explaining behaviour Focus on crime across all social classes Primarily Micro-level, but integrate Macro and psychological explanations Key Question: Are they Classicist or Positivist1Social Learning Theories: Underlying AssumptionsCriminal behaviour is learned in a social context Crime is ??? normal??? rather than ??? pathological??? Crime is a product of learning the norms, values, and behaviours associated with criminal activity Key Objective: To detail the processes through which criminal patterns are cultivatedMicro versus MacroMicro level explanations: focus on the individualImplications for policy ExamplesMacro level explanations: focus on the wider social context in which crime occursDifferential Association [Edwin H Sutherland]Criminal behaviour is learned Learning is a by-product of interaction Learning occurs within intimate groups Criminal techniques are learned Perceptions of legal codes influence motives and drives A person becomes delinquent due to an excess of favourable definitions over unfavourable definitions2Differential AssociationVariations in Differential AssociationFrequency Duration Priority Intensity Further principle: Learning criminal behaviour involves all of the mechanisms involved in any other learningCriticisms of Differential AssociationTestability/Measurement Does the internalisation of deviant attitudes precede or follow criminality Revised theory [Akers and Burgess, 1966]All criminal behaviour depends on a person??™s experiences with rewards for conventional and deviant behaviours Being rewarded for deviance leads to crime3SummaryPoor socialisation within the family leads to crime Criminal behaviour is learned An excess of exposure to influences that favour deviance over conformity leads to crime Or, bad behaviour must not be rewarded OThe Rational ActorWeak social control: Enhances opportunity to commit crime Makes crime a ??? rational??? choice Leads to a breakdown of law & orderSocial control seen as the dominant crime reduction strategyLooting4Finding! Low Self ControlTravis Hirschi: Causes of Delinquency Attachment: bonds with primary agents of socialisation ??“ parents, teachers, community leaders, peers etc. Extent of Commitment to certain norms/valuesLow self control cont??™d??¦Involvement: too involved in things to engage in deviant behaviour Beliefs: a deeply held sense of right and wrong5Critiques of Hirschi??™s Theory??? Natural??™ motivation to deviate Deviance is a very wide-ranging conceptDrug taking Engaging in violence Fraud Failure to buy a TV licence, etc. Preparation for SeminarRead: Hopkins Burke, R (2001) An Introduction to Criminological Theory.
Cullompton, Devon: Willan (pp. 90-95) Are Social Process Theories Classicist or Positivist theories Discuss What is the difference between micro and macro levels of explanation On the micro level, give example(s) of policies directed at addressing poor socialisation in the family Consider the role of the mass media in reinforcing negative behaviour. Prepare to discuss: Does violence on TV cause real-life violenceThank you! 6