Essay, 11 pages (3000 words)

Politics: the twin towers and the pentagon causing

Politics: An example of a war based on politics in war and conflictis after 9/11 when George Bush, President of the USA at the time in 2001decided to go to war with Iraq and Afghanistan. The famous attacks on 9/11 arewhen the terrorist group Al Qaeda hit the twin towers and the pentagon causingover 2000 deaths and roughly 6000 injured. This caused a massive uproarthroughout the United States, citizens were horrified and angry that so manyinnocent lives had been lost. George Bush decided in order to take revenge onwhat the terrorist did to his country he would go to war with Afghanistan andIraq sending over 400,000 troops.

(Robert Giroux, BBC.co.uk, 2001) Nationalism: An example of a war based on nationalism is the conflictin Northern Ireland in the 1968. The conflict was over whether to goindependent and become part of the republic of Ireland or remain part of theBritish empire.

Irish protestants, who were the majority formed the UlsterVolunteer Force who were keen to stay part of it while Irish nationalist formedthe Irish volunteers who wanted to be part of the republic of Ireland. Theconflict however was not about religion at all, it was about national identityand belongings. The IRA and INLA were involved as well as the British army tokeep the peace. The deaths during the war came to around 3000 with 50,000people injured. The conflict came to an end in a ceasefire in 1998, NorthernIreland still remains part of Britain but protestants and Catholics are now in Partnership.(Dennis Murray, BBC.co.uk, 2005) Religion: An example of war based upon religion is the PalestinianIsraeli conflict.

Israel is a Jewish state which is surrounded by Muslimstates. In the late 1940’s the Muslim states wanted to destroy Israel becausethey were a Jewish state. The Arabs have initiated 4 wars against the Israeli.The conflict is still going on today in 1973 the Yom Kippur war happened due tothe conflict, this was when the Palestinians, Syrians and Egyptian Army’s did asurprise attack on Israel on the day of Yom Kippur a holy Jewish day,eventually a cease-fire was organised by the United Nations. (Eretz Yisra?el, britannica.com,2017) Landand resources: Land andresources are a cause of some wars as countries will invade other countries toget land and Natural resources and take parts of the land. A war caused by landand resources is the Gulf War in 1990. Saddam Hussain’s Iraq invaded Kuwait forpetroleum which even Iraq had at the time but they wanted more, this then activatedthe Gulf War which started on the 2nd August 1990 and ended on 28th February1991.

The Gulf War started when Iraq was at war with Iran. During this war Iranwas attacking Iraq and attacking oil tankers from Kuwait at sea too. SaddamHussein stationed 100,000 troops on the border and in early August invadedKuwait. As the Iraqi forces invaded and took over. (history.

com,2002). Ideology: is also a common cause of war and conflict because it canbe troubling when people of countries cannot decide on a same idea and everyoneis strongly about their idea and the other for example person on theirs thatcan lead to a conflict as they can’t agree on something. E.g.

, The Cold War 2.2: Evaluate links between conflicts and terrorism According to their article it states: Taken in isolation,most of Britain’s security, defence and diplomatic community readily acceptthat an increased terror threat inside the UK follows after any militaryintervention in a predominantly Muslim country. (bbc.

co.uk, 2017) Tony Blairinvasion of Iraq in March 2003the government’sJoint Intelligence Committee was blunt in its assessment of possibleconsequences of war with Iraq: an assessment which was then marked Top Secretbut was declassified to allow its publication as part of the findings of theChilcot Inquiry.( Gavin Stamp, bbc.co.uk, 2017) The Chilcot Inquiry in otherwords is known as the Iraq War Inquiry and was set up in 2009 by then PrimeMinister Gordon Brown to examine the UK’s involvement in the Iraq war. (Christopher Hope, telegraph.co.

uk,2016)  Following the involvement of the UK in theAmerican invasion of Iraq Islamist terrorist groups reacted to what the UK andUnited States have done to Iraq. The BBC and other news articles state that thelargest single terror attack in Britain took place on 7/7, in July 2005, ofcourse. Few arguments that Britain’s choice to join the attack and invasion ofIraq was used by the 7/7 attackers and those who had radicalised them as partof their reason for killing civilians in Britain.

It is also true that following British militaryaction overseas – including in Libya – has been used by extremists to justifyfurther massacre of innocents in the UK. Another example would be; SalmanAbedi, the 22-year-old terrorist who murdered 22 people in a suicide bombing atManchester Arena last month, has been linked to the (Libyan Islamic FightingGroup) LIFG. (GARETH DAVIES, dailymail.co.

uk,2017)  2.3: Evaluate the impact of conflict on UK and internationalpublic service organisations The impact of war can heavily damagethe environment and leave a heavy impact on people’s lives who are victims andalso on those who are involved in the war such as soldiers. The types ofenvironment that gets destroyed because of war is natural resources collapse,land and forests destruction and many more others. This can leave a devastatingeffect by the costs of war. Seriously wounded casualties and soldiers, probablesome of the other members who are part of the public services such as firefighters, paramedics etc. The workers in public services put their own lives indanger in order to rescue the civilians and the country. The war can also costmillions worth of money that has to be spent depending on the damages that hadbeen caused by war. (prezi.

com,2012) The costs are very high as thegovernment spent £9.4 billion possibly more during the conflict withAfghanistan. (nato.inl, 2005) This shows how this may affect the people inBritain as they have to pay taxes back to the government and this will affectthe people in the society especially at times when the taxes rise up. The CzechRepublic, Poland and Hungary joined the NATO in 1999, in the association’sfirst round of post-Cold War expansion. Their agreement shows a landmark intheir combination into the trans-Atlantic community and a recognition byancient NATO members that they had made a successful change in creatingself-governing political systems and market economies. But, the CzechRepublic’s first two years of membership in NATO have had more than their shareof problems.

Czech Republic has had trouble sustaining its duties towards thegrouping and has faced discouraging problems in reorganisation its Cold Warlegacy military into a group well-matched with the association framework. (nato.inl, 2005) But, separating the Czechs from Hungarians and Polish,some foreign and security policies of the Czech Republic have seemed at timesto opposition from NATO and have familiar doubts within NATO about thecountry’s trustworthiness as an association member.(bbc.co.uk, 2015) In order to investigate the greatercauses of the seeming Czech doubt about NATO and to assess the impact of NATOassociation on Czech visions of security, specialist Thomas Szayna led asurvey-based study to inspect the degree to which the Czech public categoriseswith its tasks as an association member. (rand.

org, 2016) As NATO reproducesgrowing association to other post-Communist countries. 2 thirds of the public knowthat real membership in NATO needs a well-performing Czech military, fullyjoint in NATO. The Czech public has a good kind of the military’s problems andis ready to release vital military upgrading, if there are sensible pledgesthat the funds for reform will not be wasted through dishonesty or poorlythought-out strategy of change. They also found that, even though Czechs arehighly dangerous of the current state of the Czech military, they recall a highlevel of trust in the armed forces. On the other hand, Czechs show a high levelof displeasure with the presentation of Czech political and legitimate bodiesand are disbelieving of their efficiency in times of crisis.

Strong Czechsupport for NATO is linked to an awareness of shared answerability and apromise to assist connections in time of need. However, the Czechs have notfully accepted the meaning of non-Article 5 alliance operations. (huffingtonpost.com,2013) Without a clear knowledge of the connection between NATO’s peaceoperations and European security, and absent public debate on these issues,most Czechs understood Operation Allied Force, NATO’s action against YugoslavPresident Slobodan Milosevic’s defeat of ethnic Albanians in Kosovo, as adecline into Cold War patterns of behaviour and a violence by a military associationagainst an independent country. (theguardian.

com, 2015) The study found that the main sourceof Czech hesitation towards NATO is an insight of a low level of influence thatthe public has on decision-making in security issues. This lack of clearnessand public debate in the Czech decision to join NATO, demonstrated by the lackof a vote on the issue, is the main source of the problem. When taxpayers areneither referred about their views on agreement nor informed properly about thecosts of agreement, as happened in the Czech Republic, both the quality of thenew member’s membership is damaged, and NATO has to deal with discomfituresthat are possibly damaging to its operations. In other words, inadequacies inthe democratic process in the Czech Republic continue to affect Czech attitudesand behaviour toward NATO. This is the most relevant lesson regarding theexpected next round of expansion and one that the association should notre-learn. (rand.

org, 2015)  2.4: Analyse the roles of national and internationalorganisations in recent conflicts EuropeanUnion: You bring out rules that all affiliate countries aresupposed to stand by the United Kingdom on recycling, then takes those rule andtools them straight away in some cases beyond the needs of the rules andoccasionally applying punishments for breach these rules before the officialEuropean Union put down time limit has been reached. The United Kingdom has thelittlest beurocracy in the European Union and will thoroughly apply allEuropean Union rule to the letter. Most European rules are not rules they areguidelines and common sense should be used when implementing them. Weights andmeasures is a prime example loose goods can be sold in imperial weights as longas an easily read conversion chart is openly displayed and the weighingequipment is calibrated and certified as being accurate.  Virtually all other European countries cherry pick thelegislation that benefits them and ignores any that will harm their economy orpopulation. The UK on the last round of new entrants to the EU granted workersfrom those countries immediate access to our jobs market and benefits systemwhereas all the other countries waited three years whilst those new countrieswere on trial before giving way those rights perfectly legal and perfectlyacceptable under EU rules.

So money that would have been spent on publicservices is diverted to benefit these new immigrants by way of benefits, freetranslation services and many more. UnitedNations:UN agencies, programmes and funds do work directly incountries mainly poorer just beginning countries and they do a lot of the stuffthat governments would normally do in richer places. They help build houses,get people access to medicine and clean water, and help conduct elections, andso on. There are also broader goals set at the UN level regarding publicservices. You’ve heard of the Millennium Development Goals.

The MillenniumDevelopment Goals are a target all United Nation country has agreed to well,they voted on it. Make things better by 2015. A lot of the MillenniumDevelopment Goals are regarding stuff like poverty and education, so efforts tomeet the MDGs are in effect improving public services. Finally, apart from theMDGs, there are also a lot of treaties conducted at the UN level which areabout protecting the rights of children and ethnic minorities, and many more.That could involve improving services too it’s a pressure for governments to doso, anyway. NATO generally doesn’t do this stuff. Obviously they’re a militaryorganization. Traditionally their role has been to shoot people, or to sharebetter ways of shooting people.

But times are changing. NATO increasingly doeshold meetings and such where they discuss all sorts of stuff, not just militaryaffairs. As the traditional military role of NATO becomes less important, theyhave to find other things to do. NATO on the ground, NATO workers inAfghanistan do vigorously go around building new schools, they set up hygienesystems and build clean water systems, and they help with all sorts of physicalrebuilding. In that sense NATO has done a lot to improve public services inAfghanistan. RedCross:The British Red Cross helps people in disaster, whoever andwherever they are. The Red Cross are part of a global voluntary network,responding to wars, natural disasters and separate emergencies. The Red Crosshelp vulnerable people in the UK and abroad prepare for, suffer and recoverfrom emergencies in their own communities.

The British Red Cross were found on 4 August 1870, at atime when Europe was suffering war after bloody war. The Red Cross’s originalmission was to help the injured and sick in time of war, but as the nature ofwar changed their services have long-drawn-out to help citizens in harmony aswell. A group of 22 noticeable men as well as military officers, surgeons, andmembers of the House of Lords formed to guide the unexperienced organisation.(Colonel Loyd-Lindsay) was the chairman. The ladies’ committee was controlledby (Queen Victoria’s) daughter, (Princess Christian). (Florence Nightingale)was also a member. (Queen Victoria) was the party’s supporter, and the Princeof Wales, later Edward VII, was the president. The British Red Cross is based all over the UK officiallybut it is based all over the world as I am going to write them down:Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Djibouti, Haiti, Kenya, Lesotho, Guinea, Liberia,Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Iraq, Pakistan, Philippines, Sierra Leone, SouthAfrica, Syria, Turkmenistan, South Sudan, Uganda, and Zimbabwe.

The British Red Cross is known by the UK Government as oneof three Voluntary Aid Civilisations, the other 2 being St John Ambulance andSt Andrew’s Ambulance Association. It is the single Red Cross Society for theUnited Kingdom and the British Overseas Lands. NATO:Nato stands for the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. Nato is aworldwide system of government which brings together the armies of manycountries from all over the world, including Britain and the United States. Itwas formed in 1949, after the end of the Second World War.

Also there are 26member countries and I will list a few below:-         Belgium-         Bulgaria-         Turkey-         EstoniaThe main and official base of the Nato’s headquarters arebased in Brussels, Belgium.The main aim of Nato is to make sure that itsmember countries don’t fight and start war against each other, and that insteadthey use their forces to work together for world peace. Nato has been used more and more in situations where theworld has decided urgent military action is needed. Nato membercountries agree that if any one country is attacked, the other countries willcome to help them and get involved by solving the issues. It’s hoped this willstop military attacks on any Nato country. Nato countries also unite togetherfor worldwide peacekeeping operations, such as in Bosnia and Kosovo.

NATO’smilitary system of government and structures include all military actors andformations that are involved in and used to put into practice politicaldecisions that have military implications.  3.1: Examine recent examples of political change internationally Zimbabwe was a very well off country.

It was considered the”Bread-basket of Africa”. It had productive mines, with some of thelargest platinum deposits in the world. It produced some of the best tobacco inthe world and had a booming tourist economy. The country could easily feeditself, it was a net producer of food crops, having more than enough to export.(africacheck.org,2017) Now, the problems started in 1980, the year Mugabe was democraticallyelected as president. There are two major Black-African groups in Zimbabwe, theShona, and the Matabele.

Mugabe is a Shona. Now, in 1980, in Matabeleland, theheartland of the Matabele people, there was huge unhappiness at Mugabe’svictory, so there were uprisings. These uprisings were followed by a second,more violent one in February 1981, in which 300 people were killed.

(bbc.co.uk,2017) Mugabe would respond with the “Gukurahundi”, orthe “Matabele Massacres”, from 1982 to 1985. During these massacres,armed forces under the command of Mugabe slaughtered up to 20,000 Matebele inretribution for the earlier uprisings. (biznews.com, 2017) A further 2,000 -3,000 Matabele ear-marked as trouble makers or political opponents were alsoimprisoned during this period and tortured. (bulawayo24.

com, 2017) There was asteady increase in government control over universities and other areas of thecountry which resulted in wide-spread protests from trade unions, workers andstudents in the 90’s. These protests were met with violence by police. From1993 until this very day, anti-government protests are illegal and are almostcertainly met with violence. Widespread strikes in 1994 weakened the economyand strikes in 1996 by health care workers plunged the country into a healthcrisis it has not recovered from.

(http://citeseerx.ist.psu, 2015) The nail in Zimbabwe’s coffin came in 2000, when Mugabeissued his “land grab” order.

People who were considered veterans ofZimbabwe’s civil war were permitted, by the government, to forcibly seizefarming land from white farmers. These farmers received no aid from the policeand their pleas fell on deaf ears. Prior to this, there had been a country widedisarming process of the farmers. The joke is, many of the war “veterans”where as young as 18 years old, the war ended 20 years ago. (news24.

com, 2017) Sobasically, it was a free-for-all land grab aimed at expelling whiteZimbabweans. The land-grab caused Zimbabwe’s thriving agricultural sector tocollapse. Agriculture was Zimbabwe’s primary contributor to export profits.Aside from the loss of money, the country also hit food shortages worsened bydrought. The country now suffers food, fuel, water and electricity shortages,with major cities only having water switched on 3 times a week, other moreisolated areas no longer have electricity. He has rigged the last twopresidential elections. The only good thing Mugabe done was to topple a racist,minority regime.

Since then he has destroyed a once prosperous country. Zimbabweholds the Guinness World Record for hyper-inflation. (zoliblog.

com, 2008)Zimbabwean cities are awash with billion dollar notes that litter the streets,as worthless as the dust coating them. He’s oppressive, he’s a dictator, he hasoverseen what amounts to genocide and he is a racist. 3.2: Evaluate the effectiveness of internationalorganisations’ management of recent political change situations   One problemof Brexit that effected the work is a lot of young people cannot find jobs sounemployment rates gone up but not only that but the wages have gone up for thecurrent employee meaning that once we leave the EU the rate of pay against theamount of employees is going to shoot up even higher. And that is according to(theguardian,2017) article on how Brexit is going to effect the UK economybelow I have attached a pictures of the bar charts for the current situation onthe British economy due to the Brexit vote.

Thanks for your opinion!
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