Essay, 5 pages (1100 words)

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High School Mid-Term Paper I. Matching. (Max. 10 points) Identify the following philosophers with their respective, ethical philosophies. Each correct match is worth two (2) points.
1. ___ B. __ John Stuart MillA. Natural Law theory
2. ___ A. __ Immanuel Kant B. Emotivism/Non-Cognitivism
3. __F___ St. Thomas AquinasC. Utilitarianism
4. ____E_ AristotleD. Specieism
5. __D___ David HumeE. Virtue Ethics
F. Categorical Imperative
II. Multiple Choice. (Max. 36 points) This section consists of twelve (12) multiple choice questions worth three (3) points each. Choose the best response to each question and write your answer in the space provided.
1. ___A____. Which of the following ethical philosophies view ethics primarily as a subjective, personal matter and would likely be found at the pre-conventional stage of Kohlberg’s theory of moral progression?
(A)Ethical egoism
(B)Kantian Ethics
(D)All of the above
2. __(A)____. Which of the following IS TRUE according to the ethical theories studied to date?
(A)The utilitarian theory focuses primarily on the happiness of the individual involved.
(B)Natural Law theory focuses primarily on teleological, natural and rational ends that are inherently good for human development, human flourishing and for defining human dignity.
(C)Kantian ethical theory considers an action moral when it passes a single test based on the concept of respect.
(D)None of the above are true.
3. ___ C. __. Which of the following IS TRUE of relativism?
A. Cultural relativism is not a credible, conventional theory of morality according to Mary
Midgley and the position taken in her article “ Trying Out One’s New Sword.”
B. Relativism Individual can be found according to Kohlberg at the
Pre-conventional stage of one’s moral progression.
C. The roots of cultural relativism indicate that power, cultural conformity and/or
acceptance are the ultimate virtues or ends for happiness.
D. Ethical Relativism holds that most actions are inherently right or wrong.
4. ___ D. ____. Which of the following is not a proper principle or “ human good” according to Natural Law theory?
A. the nurturing of family and social bonds
B. human flourishing and the fulfillment of one’s human and spiritual excellence
C. the cultivation and embodiment of virtue, including love.
D. dishonesty, including dishonest and adulterous relationships
5. ___ A. ____. Which of the following BEST describes what morality is?
A. Morality is an arbitrary set of rules for conduct in given situations.
B. Morality is defined by the majority of beliefs in a given culture or society.
C. Morality is a disposition by an individual to live his/her life according to
prioritized principles or ideals of how one ought to live happily, rightly and justly.
D. Morality is equivalent to the law.
6. __ A. ____. Which of the following are most likely to rely on personhood or the ontological status of the embryo/fetus as a fundamental or significant basis for arguments for/against abortion?
A. Natural Law theory
B. Aristotle’s Virtue Ethics
C. Utilitarianism
D. Cultural relativism
7. ___ C. ___. Which of the following ethical theories focuses exclusively on the consequences of one’s actions/conduct in determining the morality of an action?
A. Natural Law theory
B. Kantian ethical theory
C. Utilitarian ethical theory
D. Cultural Relativism

8. ___B. ___. Which of the following is least likely to be descriptive of the ethical view that one holds who typically responds “ do what you feel is right” in a given ethical situation?
A. Kantian Ethics
B. Ethical Egoism
C. Aristotle’s Virtue Ethics
D. Subjective Relativism
9. ___D___. Which of the following is NOT TRUE according to Aristotle’s Virtue ethics theory?
A. The emotions are irrelevant to one’s moral development.
B. True and pure happiness is objective and can be found through actualizing one’s full potential.
C. Moral virtue is a matter of the soul’s disposition, habit and an individual’s resolve and is created in the same way for each person.
D. The ends and the means must both be right, just and good.
10. __A___. Which of the following ethical theories of morality are primarily subjective in nature?
A. Aquinas’ natural law theoryC. Kantian Ethics
B. UtilitarianismD. Aristotle’s Virtue Ethics
11. ___ A. __. Which of the following, according to Aristotle, is intrinsically bad or evil and always constitutes a vice?
A. AngerC. Envy
B. PrideD. Courage
12. ___ C. __. According to Kantian ethical theory, which of the following persons would be entitled to the most “ respect?”
A. A 14-year old pregnant teen that opts for an abortion
B. The 8-week human embryo within that 14-year old pregnant teen
C. The mother of the 14-year old pregnant teen who prohibits her from having an abortion
D. An elderly person suffering from dementia who lapsed into a coma
III. Short Answers. (Max. 54 points) This section consists of seven (7) questions. Respond to only three (3) of the following seven questions and write your thoughtful, considered and organized responses in coherent paragraphs and complete sentences. Each response is worth a maximum of eighteen (18) points. Demonstrate your substantial knowledge of assigned course materials, readings and particular theories in your responses.
A. Explain what Aristotle means by happiness and the roles of virtue and vice with regard to same.
B. Identify and briefly explain three (3) primary, ethical principles of utilitarianism.
C. Identify four (4) significant arguments that may be used to persuade someone that cultural relativism is not a credible, logical and practical approach to ethics and morality.
D. Explain how Immanuel Kant defines the dignity of a human being and identify two universal, Kantian principles of morality that flow rationally and directly from his concept of human dignity.
E. The Natural Law theory employs various universal precepts that define morality, including the natural human inclination to seek the good and avoid evil. Identify three (3) additional, moral principles of the natural law that rationally define good and evil and explain how they are in accord with reason.
F. Choose three (3) ethical theories studied thus far in the course and explain whether each of the theories chosen affirms the principle that “ the ends justify the means.”
G. Choose 2 of the four, primary ethical theories studied thus far in the course and compare/contrast their respective views of the human person.
III. (a). Three primary ethical principals of utilitarian
1. Individual rights
Everybody in every community has rights to enjoy and should not be infringed. If infringed it may cause chaos and disputes.
2. Utilitarianism
The community has to enjoy the maximum good at the expense of individual people’s rights.
This means that individuals will offer to suffer so as to provide the greatest benefit possible to the larger group.
3. Distributive justice.
This answers questions of inequality where for example a manager who works lesser hours is paid much higher than an ordinary worker who works for long hours.
(b). Three additional, moral principles of the natural law.
1. Natural goodness.
Some things are just goon naturally. A dog is just friendly to man who keeps it. But a snake is naturally unfriendly.
2. Our knowledge of the basic good
People will naturally believe they should do well to people and just be good. One looks at the environment and says I have to avoid evil and offending my colleagues.
3. The catalog of basic goods
In the universe there is a catalogue of the basic good. For example, the principals in the universe on which goodness is derived.

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