- Published: October 31, 2021
- Updated: October 31, 2021
- University / College: University of California, Irvine
- Language: English
- Downloads: 47
Stojkivic et. al. opines that power exists by way of relationships. Ideally, the organizations and individuals who are capable of dealing with the environmental uncertainty and instability possess considerable power. As an individual construct, power exists on people depending on the jobs that an individual does. Individuals who cannot be replaced easily are usually more powerful. For instance, in the criminal justice system, individuals who are most effective and efficient possess power.
As an organizational construct, power resides in the individuals who determine the role that other individuals play in the organization. As such, power resides within organizational unitsand at an interpersonal level. In the organizational sense therefore, power hinges on the capacity to overcome uncertainties facing the organization, whether a unit can be replaced easily, and the significance of a units function in relation to the overall mission of the organization (305).
Three types of authority according to Max Weber
The three types of authority according to Max Weber are: traditional, charismatic, and legal. Traditional authority is based on the position that a person holds while charismatic authority refers to the personal attributes that are originate from an individual or an organization. On the other hand, legal authority basically arises from the formal rules and regulations in an organization.
Five types of power according to French and Raven
According to Raven, power exists depending on the interaction between the person is bestowed with the power and the person to whom the power is supposed to be applied. The five types of power according to him are: reward, coercive, legitimate, referent, and expert. Reward power is one where the holder of the power has the ability to provide remuneration while coercive power refers to a scenario where failure to obey orders from the power holder would ordinarily lead to punishment. Legitimate power refers to a scenario where the power holder ideally has specific authority. Accordingly, referent power is based on the lure of the recipient towards the holder of the power while expert power is arises where the recipient holds the belief that another person has a higher level of proficiency (290).
Discuss the consequences of power relations within criminal justice organizations
It is important to note that power and authority does not exist in a vacuum. Power is ideally demarcated within the context of individual and organizational dealings. The consequences of power relations within organizations are two-fold: attitudinal and behavioral conformity. As such, different expressions of power have different effects on organizations.
The effective types of power within criminal justice organizations
The effective types of power within criminal justice organizations are those that can be used legitimately. This is where the organization is able to abide by its values and objectives. These are powers that enable the criminal justice organizations to focus their attention on the most important and emergent social trends such as terrorism. Accordingly, effective types of power enable the organizations to redefine the mission and vision of the organization in a bid to remain relevant.
Stojkivic, Stan, David Kalinich, John Klofas. Criminal Justice Organizations Administration and
Management. Cengage Learning, 2011.