Essay, 3 pages (700 words)

Sports management

Sports Management Sports Management Research Problem The research article selected for this analysis bears the “Management training and national sport organization managers: Examining the impact of training on individual and organizational performances” authored by Millar and Stevens (2012). The article begins by denoting the research problem, which is neglect of sports managers’ development and performance outside the field compared to their field performance. The authors note that sport systems, in Canada, lack proper mechanisms to equip sports managers with administrative skills and overall organizational capacity. The article therefore, clearly defines the research scope by emphasizing the necessity of professional improvement strategies for sports managers like HR training.
Literature Review Discussion
The literary analysis in Millar and Stevens’ (2012) article primarily revolves around the theoretical concepts of training transfer. This framework encompasses supporting concepts like the learning theory, individual performance, and overall organizational performance. The article also addresses factors that mediate training transfer including motivation to move, extant training design, as well as, organizational climate. This theoretical model clearly covers the most significant study areas in the research. For instance, theory on learning and its outcomes, which has its roots in psychology and sociology, provides insight into how individuals gain or build new ideas. The rest of the theoretical information also forms a crucial background on the factors capable of contributing towards or impeding sports managers’ learning ability and subsequent administrative proficiency.
Research Hypotheses
Unlike most quantitative studies, which simply have the research and null hypotheses, Millar and Stevens’ (2012) investigation has several, since it examines more than one mediating factor. For instance, H1 stipulates that managers’ learning heightens after training, while H2 asserts that learning level is highest immediately following training. H3 and H4 denote the positive correlation between individual performance and learning, while H5 and H6 draw a similar analogy between organization performance and training. Finally, H7 indicates that motivation to transfer, organizational climate, and training design mediate the link between management proficiency and individual performance. Though not explicitly outlined, the null hypothesis contravenes these research suggestions.
Methodology Analysis
The study adopted a quasi-experimental and longitudinal design, characterized by three measurement stages including pre-training, after-training, and the second post-training. The study involved 36 participants including volunteers and managerial staff selected randomly from six national sport organizations (NSOs) in Canada. During the first phase, there was a response rate of 100% to the survey questionnaires issued. However in the second stage, 35 out of the 36 respondents took part in the survey hence a 97% response rate. In the final phase only 22 participants responded to the survey questions resulting in a dismal 64% response rate.
Statistical Analysis Discussion
Millar and Stevens (2012) used internal consistency estimates and descriptive statistics for all mediating variables and research outcomes. The scholars also applied repeated ANOVA analyses to compare learning levels, organizational and individual performance. There was also use of paired t-tests to evaluate differences between pre and post-training average scores for various training outcome measures. Links between learning and performance variables were examined using Pearson’s correlation analysis, while bootstrapping technique of compound mediation was utilized to establish whether organizational climate, transfer motivation and training design influence the association between understanding applicability and performance.
Study Conclusion and Recommendations
Millar and Stevens (2012) conclude that the research findings are indicative of the fact that training enhances sport managers’ learning and performance capacity. They also deduce from the results that training improves NSOs’ organizational performance. The general assertion of the article is that training sport managers equips them with administrative skills for overall individual and organizational performance.
Study Opinion and Research Implications for Sport Management
The number of participants was small, limiting the generalizability of the study to mainstream sports organizations. However, the statistical tests carried out, like bootstrapping, account for effects of limited sample size thus allowing for credible statistical conclusions. These research findings bear significant implications for sports managers and sport organizations alike. This is because the results show that training individuals within favorable company settings goes a long way towards improving their managerial capacity for the benefit of the company involved.
Millar, P. & Stevens, J. (2012). Management training and national sport organization managers: Examining the impact of training on individual and organizational performances. Sport Management Review, 15, 288–303.

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