- Published: October 31, 2021
- Updated: October 31, 2021
- University / College: Washington University in St. Louis
- Language: English
- Downloads: 16
One amongst the most important activities of human is managing. The practice of management can be traced back to ancient time. Management can be defined as the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals who are working together as a group accomplish their goal correctly. Manager s are leaders whose functions are to plan, organize, lead and control. This will ensure that everything within the organization will run smoothly.Some schools of Management are as follows:Scientific ManagementClassical administrationThe Human relations approachThe System ApproachThe contingency approach.
1.1Discussion of this assignment
In this assignment, we will discuss about the fact that F. Taylor was amongst the first person, who argued that management should be based on principles. He led the way to Scientific Management.Frederick Winson TAYLOR (1856-1915) was an American Mechanical Engineer, born on the 20th March 1856 in the Philadelphia. He was the son of Franklin TAYLOR, a well known lawyer. Frederick TAYLOR studies mainly in France and Germany. He developed Scientific Management and is considered to be the father of Scientific Management. His innovations in industrial engineering mostly in time and motion studies, paid off in dramatic improvement in productivity.However he was a controversial figure in Management history. He has been credited with destroying soul of work, dehumanizing factories and turning man into automations. His management system was known as “Taylorism”
2.0AIMS OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
The main concern of Taylor applying Scientific methods toIncrease productivity through greater efficiency in production.Reduce cost of productionEliminate wastagePut the right man at the right placeGive incentive wages.
2.1TECHNIQUES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
Task settingWork studyMethod studyMotion studyTime studyFatigue studyPlanning the taskSetting the wage rateTools and equipmentTraining.
3.0TAYLOR’S SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES
Taylor Scientific Management was based on four principles.Replacement of old thumb rule method.Firstly he believed that the replacement of the ‘old thumb rule method’ was important for the progress of organizations. The ‘old thumb rule method’ a general and inappropriate method based on practice. It was a rough and no-nonsense method of procedure. He changed the system of ‘old thumb rule’ by using scientific approach to study work and determine the best method to perform a specific task. That is to develop a science for each element of a person’s work.Select, Train and develop the worker.He also thinks that instead of just designating workers to any task, organizations should scientifically select and match them to their jobs based on competence and motivation. Then train & coach them to that work. Thus workers will be developed and improve leading to more efficient workers.Cooperation between workers and management.Taylor emphasized a lot on the collaboration between workers and management. He considered that the space between them should be reduced. Giving the workers more incentives will create more interest for them. That is if a worker performs very well and produces a lot. He will be paid based on his merits. However too much of closeness can create conflict between management and employees.Divide work and responsibility equally.Finally, Taylor stressed that work and responsibility should be equally divided between managers and workers. This will improve production well through work studies, tools and economic incentives. Nevertheless this might cause quarrel between workers.According to Hirschhorn (1984), Taylor’s work highlights the relationship between rationalization in general and labor-control methods in particular. In Taylor’s (1911) book, The Principles of Scientific Management, he discussed what he called a struggle for control of production between management and labor. To control production, he developed methods for the measure and design of machining methods as part of a general plan for increasing the planning functions of management. Taylor’s fundamental concept and guiding principle was to design a production system that would involve both men and machines and that would be as efficient as a well-designed, well-oiled machine (Hughes, 1989). Time studies were used to allow management to take control of the operations, thereby controlling production methods, and, by default, production. This system required that management should take a more active role in the factory and, through engineers and salaried foremen, take greater control over operations. Skilled craftsmen and foremen had to give up their power (Hirschhorn, 1984).Taylor warned about attempting to change the culture of the organization. He also stated the importance of management commitment and the need for gradual implementation and education. He was for scientifically determine the best way to do a job, he performed experiments known time studies. (Stopwatch). However ,In 1911-1912 the US house of representatives passed the law banning use of stopwatchesThe following are examples of some of the time-and-motion studies that were performed by Taylor and others in the era of scientific management.
3.1Experiments of Frederic Taylor
If the workers were moving an amount of twelve and a half tons of pig iron per day and they could be rewarded to try to move forty seven and a half tons per day, by themselves they would not be able to do this, as they will feel tired. However, by doing experiments to establish the amount of resting that was necessary, the manager could decide the best time of lifting and resting so that the worker could move the forty seven and a half tons per day without tiring.Only some of the workers were physically capable of moving 47 1/2 tons per day. They were not extraordinary people but their physical capabilities were well-suited to moving pig iron.This example suggests that workers should be selected according to how well they are suited for a particular job.
Taylor said that even the simplest tasks could be planned in a way that would increase production and that scientific management of the work was more effective than the “initiative and incentive” method of encouraging workers. The initiative and incentive method offered an incentive to increase productivity but placed the duty on the worker to find out how to process.To scientifically find out the best way to carry out a work, Taylor performed experiments that he called time studies, (also known as time and motion studies). These studies were done by the use of a stopwatch to time a worker’s chain of movements, with the aim of finding out the best way to perform a job.
3.2EXAMPLES WHERE BUSINESSES BENEFITTED FROM TAYLOR’S SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT.
Before the coming up of Taylor’s scientific management approach, production managers had few tools available to enable to recognized where production issues existed or a baseline of proven methods to adopt towards improving production output (Berggren, 1980). Taylor’s scientific management approach focused on increasing the speed and efficiency of manufacturing production (Dougherty, 1982). The resulting factory society with its division between the low skilled labor force and high authorities management reinforced the discipline necessary to meet the production goals and efficiency forecasted under the Taylorism approach (Hodgetts & Greenwood, 1995). While revolutionary at the time, Taylor’s “one best way” focused on maximizing the productivity of the individual eventually clashed with higher-level synchronization issues as the manufacturing process grew in size and complexity (Landsbergis, Cahill, & Schnall, 1999). The discipline of the approach lead to a single goal of high efficiencies in the organization but ran the risk of ignoring future market fluctuations which could lead to over production and higher inventory costs (1999).Efficiencies in cost and time led the transition away from craftsmanship and towards less skilled labor force. As less skilled labor was applied to the mass production process, additional human factors such as personal discipline, boredom, and repetitive motion health issues became higher-level management concerns (Dougherty, 1982). The harshness under the Taylorism approach intimately led to the rise of unionism by the workers was the consequence of the lack of initial attention that managers gave to their employee’s needs (Wheatcroft, 2000).
4.0FAYOL’S FUNCTION OF MANAGEMENT
To be able to compare “Taylorism” let’s have a look at Henri FAYOL’s classical administration theory on management.Henri FAYOL (1841-1925) was a French industrialist who developed a general theory of business administration. He was one of the most influential contributions to modern concept of management (Ronald T. Greenwood). He is considered as the father of modern management theory. He proposed five primary function of management. He said thatPlanningManagers must plan for future conditions, develop strategic objectives and secure the achievement of future goals. Therefore, managers must evaluate future eventuality touching the organization, and take necessary actions to ensure smooth running and continuity.OrganizingManagers must organize the workers in a professional way and systematize the activities of the organization. Managers must also educate and employ the right people for the job.CommandingManagers must supervise workers in their day to day work, and motivate them to attain the objectives of the organization goals. It is the manager’s role to communicate the company’s goal to the workers. The commanding of subordinates should always be consistent with company policies, and every manager should treat subordinates in line with the standards of the company.CoordinatingManagers must go with the measures and actions performed by the company, meaning that every activity of each organizational unit should complement and enrich the work of another.ControllingManagers must control that company activities are in line with general company policies and objectives. It is also the responsibility of the manager to observe and report deviations from plans and objectives, and to make initiatives to correct potential deviations.The five functions theory of Henri Fayol is a very normative and useful view on management, however it not include all the difficulties that managers face in their day to day activities. Henry Fayol’s five functions concentrate less on casual relationships between managers and workers. He does not say much about how to develop and maintain a motivated workforce.However, the 5 functions presented by Henri Fayol give a clear idea of several tasks needed to be done by all managers, which gives managers an preliminary indication of which main functions they should be spotting on in their daily work.
4.1Principles of Fayol’s Management Theory
Fayol felt a real need for management principles. Therefore he identified 14 such principles, nothing that they are flexible, not unlimited and must be usable regardless of changing conditions. They are as follows:Division of workThe work in an organization must be divided among individuals and departments. Different departments differing jobs.Authority and ResponsibilityThere should be a proper balance between authority and responsibility.Higher up the ladder should have more responsibilityDisciplineThe best means of maintaining discipline is to have disciplined superiors at all levels, Clear and fair agreements, and Judicious use of all penalties.Unity of CommandIt means a subordinate should receive orders from only one superior. There should not be multiple bosses.Unity of DirectionThere should be ‘one head, and one plan’ for a group of activities having the same objective. For instance, if there are 10 salesmen, selling the same product in the same area, and if there are 2 sales supervisors, each in charge of 5 men, then every salesman would take orders from their respective supervisors. There will be unity of direction only when all the sales plans are coordinated at a higher level.Subordination of individual interest to general interestIn other words, the interest of the organization should come first and then individual or group interest. That is when at work, only work things should be done and thought about.RemunerationWages and salaries should be fair. It should depend on circumstances, such as cost of living, ability of the company to pay, prevailing wage rates in the industry. Apart from financial benefits, non-financial benefits be provided such as good working conditions, canteen facilities, recreation facilities, etc.CentralizationSome matters are to be centralized. For example decisions are made from the top. There is a need to have a proper balance between centralization and decentralization.Scalar ChainIt refers to the line of command from top level to the lowest level. The scalar chain can be short-circuited or broken if the situation so demands in the interest of the organization.OrderThis principle requires the orderly organization and placement of men, machines and other resources. Misplacement would lead to misuse and disorder.EquityAll members of the organization should be treated equally, depending upon the performance and circumstances.Stability of TenureManagers as well as non-managers need time to learn and understand their jobs. If they leave or are removed within a short period of time, the learning time will be wasted.In other words, employees should not be kept temporary for a long period of lime. Employees should be made permanent so that they do not leave the organization. However, incompetent persons need to be removed or replaced and those who perform well must be rewarded.InitiativeThe superior must sacrifice his own vanity to encourage and inspire those under him to show initiative. Subordinates should be given freedom to come up with suggestions and ideas.Esprit de CorpsThe superior must encourage esprit de corps (team spirit) among his subordinates. It is the team spirit that results in loyalty, and dedication and commitment of the employees.
5.0CRITICISM OF TAYLOR’S MANAGEMENT THEORY
His methods of motivation started and finished at monetary incentives Taylorism promotes the idea that there is “one right way” to do something. There is no scope for initiative. He speed up workers. That is he made workers to work like machines without putting love and attention in what they are doing. Teamwork is another area where pure Taylorism is in opposition to current practice. Essentially, Taylorism breaks tasks down into tiny steps, and focuses on how each person can do his or her specific series of steps best. This turned work to monotony and workers get bored after some hours of work. The excessive specialization that Taylorism encourages, is the contrary to modern ideals of how to provide a motivating and satisfying workplace.Taylorism separates manual from mental work. Scientific management in its pure form focuses too much on the mechanics, and fails to value the people side of work, whereby motivation and workplace satisfaction are key elements in an efficient and productive organization. The basic job values of skill, variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback all were missing from the picture of scientific management.
5.1CRITICISM OF HENRY FAYOL’S classical administration theory on management
A lot of firms continued to be managed on the lucid parts of classical management theory. However classical management theory has some weaknesses. For instance, there is too much of bureaucracy in this type of management system. An organization managed on classical theory is considered to be very stable due to its strict obedience to its rules and regulations and the chain of command. Well-organized in some aspect, it has some dysfunctional ties in other areas. For example its inflexibility makes the organization very slow when it comes to customers demands. This system is also very slow then there is a change in business environment in terms of technology, competitors or new market tendencies. Furthermore it is very slow to learn from its mistakes.
While in many cases the new ways of working were accepted by the workers, in some cases they were not. The use of stopwatches often was a protested issue and led to a strike at one factory where “Taylorism” was being tested. Complaints that Taylorism was dehumanizing led to an investigation by the United States Congress. Despite its controversy, scientific management changed the way that work was done, and forms of it continue to be used today.