- Published: October 30, 2021
- Updated: October 30, 2021
- University / College: Texas A&M University
- Language: English
- Downloads: 20
The variation of job roles and people make choosing the right person for employment a more challenging task. The very objective of any selection decision is choosing the correct candidate for the desired role. Choosing a successful candidate can only be measure against the competent filling of the vacant role within the organization. There is no clear bench mark for any organisation in choosing the best route to selection, however strategic methods do apply various desired outcomes. To date wide divisions between academics and practitioners of industries can be easily noted by (Talyor;2005) “The choice of appropriate employee selection techniques is a field in which there is great divergence between the recommendations of academic writers and day to day practice in the organization” These divisions can easily be referenced by studies in CIPD reports. When evaluating candidate selection techniques it is imperative to mention over 70 percent of organizations in the private sector commonly used the Mark Cook named “classic trio” as the preferred selection method in recruiting new employees. (CIPD 2010) thus the reasoning behind such high usage figures is the relationship to cost effectiveness and an easy approach to selection. It should also be noted at this stage management styles and their attitudes bear a reflection on the recruitment and selection process.
Organizations would commonly use three methods in the selection process, application forms, references and the interview hence “the classic trio”. Taking the hospitality industry for an augmentable measurement, the classic trio is an integral method its recruitment and selection. Given the nature of the industry candidates are required to possess high levels of presentation and personality. Selection methods like the interview can prove very successful in obtaining the necessary credentials required once the predictor and criteria elements are achieved. It should be duly noted that validity of the selection can have negative drawn backs in specific skilled areas. Over 85 percent of catering organization in Ireland today uses the classic trio methodology. (Cert.99) thus implying the realization that the traditional approach is driven by the sector of employment or the management style involved. It should also be consider that the large amounts of private sector organisations in the Ireland don’t have structure HR plans in strategic organisational views. However it is reported through CIPD findings that organisations are increasing their HR facilities in the face of increase legal and current economic climates.
What is apparent at all research levels is the clear understanding that no particular method can guarantee a organisation selection success, this statement can be noted by the academic reference “The search for the perfect selection method continues; in its absence HR and line mangers continue to use a variety of imperfect methods” (Torrington 2005: 141) This statement stresses the level of support that needs to given to HR in deciding an organization methodology in the recruitment process. Getting the right individual for the job first time is a fundamental aspect for any organisation. Not only does this decision effect efficiency it bears cost implications. Considering this, it is imperative for the employer to have some procedures in place to check decisions made and ascertain the overall success of recruitment. Too often weakness in HR can be overshadowed by more general issues like productivity or turnover.
Before assessing the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional selection process, one must consider the evaluating methods for selection. When considering the most suitable selection method the following criteria need to be considered, “validity, reliability, fairness, applicability, cost and acceptability. It would likely that most opinions from both the academic and practitioner world would consider the stated criteria as a bench mark for evaluation of traditional selection methods. If would extremely beneficial to all streams of organisations to use such evaluating method, simply because no business will want to get the selection process wrong. The criterion will outline to organisation which route should serve their overall purpose better and establishing a grading system. To reinforce these elements Tyson York (2000:120) writes “In choosing methods of employee selection the selectors need to find methods which are practical enough, to be used in the short duration and restricted environment of the selection process and which provide the closest possible correlation between the predictor and the criteria for the effective performance of the job”. There reference to correlation relates to the measurement of initial grading points of selection versus the actual job performance grades. By analysing the results one can establish how effective the prediction was. The only negative aspect to evaluating the method or establishing the correlation theory is extra planning, which can be seen in various work environments by poor attitudes of line management by ultimately reviewing there perdition.
The validity of any selection method must be relevant to the purpose and measure what is meant to measure. The reliability factor is looking consistency in the method and accurate measurement from all candidates. It is in areas like reliability that traditional methods experience shortcomings. Fairness and applicability deal with bias to sub groups and using the selection method as a general template for various job roles. However in the current economic climate costing of recruitment has become ever more apparent. This can be highlight in greater strengths by recent CIDP reports stating that 65 percent of the two thirds of respondent organisation in its studies calculate recruitment costs. (CIDP 2010).
Using such criteria’s in the work environment can also have positive effect in generating larger pools of candidates and greater public relations for the organization through certified quality marks. For example in the hospitality sector employers would strive to have the IHF quality employers mark. This accreditation allows the organisation this broadcast its quality measurement across all spectrums in its recruitment field, hence portraying the employer in a fashionable position to potential candidates. Ultimately the traditional methods of recruitment and selection have persisted largely down to the broad approached given and applicability aspect in evaluating plus it simplicity for adaptability.
The first aspect of the Classic trio is the curriculum vitae or application form, both is commonly used across private and public organisations. The classic curriculum vitae allows the individual to express fully all information they feel relative to the position available, were the application is more a constructed document by the employer. The application form allows the employer to select only information to which they feel beneficial. Information software exists in the work environment to help with this dissection of the information collection process and target higher potential candidates. Applicant forms can be seen in some circle as a distraction to candidates and might scare suitable individuals from applying especially when accessing diverse pools. The curriculum vitae are also a tool of expression for all individuals seeking employment for the first time or life progressing to stages in their career. It should also be noted that any person whomever entered employment would of possibly created a curriculum vitae or completed an application form. Some employer do make judgements from the presentation of curriculum vitae and its content, it should be noted that this action is not advisable at any level.
From an organisational aspect Curriculum vitae can become a broad document and take unnecessary time analysing the information, where in contrast the application form can limit the non relative data. When organisations plan their branding, design of the application forms is a connected link to image and public relation of the employer. The burden of extra cost might be incur by the design or content of such forms, however these measures might have greater benefits is overall result. Various recommendation are offered by sources when preparing application forms and there relativity to the actual job. This statement can be insulated by quote “The best solution is to design separate application forms each vacancy advertised” (Taylor 2005) thus eradicating the generalise approach to a specific task.
The second element of the classic trio deals with short listing and references of potential candidate. Short listing deals with review of information presented through curriculum vitas or applicant forms and cross reference this data against the job specification Good practice measurement by creating criteria from the specification and description of the vacant job. This measurement allows the reviewer to systematically weigh the contents of information given, thus resulting in selection for the next stage. Quality employer programmes in most industries would have established the link between good standard criteria and systematic planning, like the connection between application form and the criteria. For example if a company invests time to construct a suitable individual application form for an accounts clerk position but fails to draw up a connected criteria to judge the responding information given. Thus entire structure will fail irrelevant of how successful the following stage might be. This allows poor grading qualities to appear and later result in negative activity for human resourcing. Standards of procedure like mentioned can also have draw back like being too regimental in the seeking of text book individuals whilst possible good candidate could be overlooked.
Whilst short listing is crucial to the traditional method, the employment reference constructs a picture of the individual past working experience, time of service, position held, responsibilities and reason for leaving the employment. Many factors must be taken into consideration when first reviewing such evidence. One should always bear in mind that information contained can sometimes be a computed generalise response and lack clear insights to the individual. All it worth mentioning that the employment reference can also be conducted for other reasoning such as the current employer wishes to past the worker on to another employer or simply in the information might be concocted to suit the potential employer creating a untrue picture for employment history. In a lot of private sector organisations it is imperative to not to take the employment reference at face value largely for reasons mentioned. Creditability of such measures will increase with the standing of the organisation involve, for example if a employment reference came from a large multinational company it would be easier to check the relevant information with their HR department oppose to dealing with a sole trader reference which could be more easily concocted. The success of following up reference checking is creating a template with the right questions to ask the previous employer to best collect concerning information in acute manner without repercussion. It is also vital to mention when dealing with unsavoury information about a candidate employment history could lead to legal action if handle incorrectly. Therefore having candidate sign consent forms to allow contact and access data concerning their past employment or experiences is paramount. Like the application form the reference is a very popular tool in selection especially in the ISME sector however the reliance on them must be taken cautiously because the information can be manipulated to suit certain agendas. But in a context where the measure is prepared and dealt with in professional manner can prove vital to the selection process.
Human interaction plays major roles in the negative aspects of the classic trio, where interviewer becomes bias, are by just asking the wrong questions. Misinterpretation of biographical data can also have negative effects on the methods. Academic findings for decades have pointed out that validity of the traditional approach lacks the definite predictor and reliability in measuring consistence results for the method. Generally in smaller organisations a common unstructured approach is taken to the “classic trio” and as result good potential candidate might be lost in the translation. It should also be highlighted that the majority of interviewers lack the correct training to perform such task. To galvanize this point note (Watson 1994:211) “employment interviewing is like driving most people rate themselves highly: the consequences of mistakes can be serious and when something goes wrong there is tendency to blame the other party”
These negative attributes of the interviewer can be generated through assumptions of the biographical data such the application form, General stereotyping or prototyping. Quite often a line manager or even senior management takes on the task of conduction such selection interview to great failure, largely due to lack of good practice awareness and evaluation measures.
The interview simply is the most popular method of selection worldwide. Generally something as resistance and still actively popular confirms the process shall continue. All lines of management will have some form of interviewing capacity in there remit and thus this finding is one possible reason the method is so commonly used. Unstructured interviews usually lack planning of questions and have less potential of been predictor in seeking good end result performers. However is should always be noted that the costing elements can outweigh evaluating decisions by management in the organisation throughout recessionary periods. Consultation and discussion face to face can prove a vital component in seeking employment in private sector especially in areas such entrepreneurships or family run organisation. In general it could be argued that the interview is a bench mark for recruitment and selection however clearly consisting issues still remain, this statement is noted by Tyson York 2000:125 “the research has produced a pessimistic evaluation of the selection interview, but has also indicated that its value may be significantly enhanced when interviewers have been trained” If would be worth highlighting for any management reviewing its measures are simply inputting to consider the evaluating methods discussed, as their traditional selection methods could greatly enhanced. It has become more popular now in industry to have 2nd and 3th interviews for job as the more structure approach evolves into main stream business, thus more interaction with the candidate to further criteria.
As discuss above the “classic trio” will persisted in its inclusion to recruitment and selection in Irish commerce. Basically down to the simplicity of its implementation and the fact enterprise has become accustom to its measures. Whilst the general objectives to recruitment has never changed the scientific approach has evolved thus creating the observation of poor evaluation and grading predictors versus results. Industry reports from bodies such as the CIPD allow us to digest the market habits whilst given though for overall review. The emergence of better costing and equality legislation has meant the recording and accessing of information has improved but still remains an objective for most organisations. Clearly employers are moving from the traditional curriculum vitae to application forms is more apparent due to improvement of handling information and short listing. Evaluating the methods is seen as a industry wide problem thus creating a follow on to poor judgement but when practiced correctly is a major efficiency tool. The position of interviewing rest clearly on the training of interviewers of providing structure in this environment, but no one can argue it popularity as a selection method. As highlight the employment referencing leaves a lot to expectations, but must be dealt with in a professional manner due to the flow of information and the restrictions on reliability. In the face of new advanced selection methods for specific skilled role the traditional method lack in academic opinions however in a change business culture and more accessibility to research hr departments in all sectors have embraced the weakness of the traditional methods and structured where required to individualise the predictors and criteria, with this said the persistence of the classic trio will remain.
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