- Published: October 31, 2021
- Updated: October 31, 2021
- University / College: Nottingham Trent University
- Language: English
- Downloads: 28
The term walkability has brought to debate by Chirrs Bradshaw in 1933 and he defined the walkability as ” quality of place”. Walkability refers to the complete quality and ability of an environment to stimulate and support pedestrian travel for a range of determinations. The built environment designs can be more supportive of pedestrian travel rather than that of vehicle travel. Designers seek to improve walkability to encourage people to walk and cycle.
Walkability refers to the overall quality of pedestrian travel in an area it takes into account the quality of facilities, roadway conditions, land use patterns, security, support, and encouragement for walking. Walkability can be assessed at various scales. At a site scale, walkability is affected by the quality of pathways, building access ways, and related facilities.
At a street or neighborhood level, it is affected by the quality of sidewalks and crosswalks and roadway conditions (road widths, traffic volumes, and speeds) (SACOG, 2011).A dynamic issue in community is providing an easy access to the transport network for different range of community members such as; young, old, children and disable people. The functions that walking and walkable area support is community involvement, health, meeting and congregation and recreation which has positive effects on sustainability and vice versa.
Walkability is the basis of sustainable city. The same as bicycling, walking can be known as ‘green’ type of transportation which except crowding reduction and also has low level of environmental influence, energy conserving without any air and noise pollution and more benefits of walkability are indicated in table 1.Connectivity is the first aim of any transportation network; it connects places that people want to travel between. Travel is considers as a ”derived demand”, people travel basically to access to other locations not just because we like movement.
Travel demand modeling generally assigns a cost to travel that includes ”cost” of time. All else being equal, shorter travel times are preferred.Increased network connectivity can reduce travel distance for all modes including walking and bicycling.The measures of connectivity are block length, block size, intersection density, street density and connected node ratio.Intermodal transportation or mixed-mode traveling comprises two types or more different modes of transportation connected end to end in order to commute passengers from the point of origin to the point to destination. Intermodality is both a technical term for exact type of trip including several modes of transport and a policy principle.
Intermodality defines matched interchanges between two or more transportation modes to complete a movement. As they involve many cooperating agents behaving in several ways that are very difficult to predict, urban transportation systems are complex in nature. The development of intermodal passenger transportation solutions to address the movement issues constitutes a major drive area of urban transport policies. But, to offer citizens comprehensive continuous mobility, intermodal transportation system management (ITSM) requires the integration of two major mechanisms. The traffic guideline provision system, to help the operator responsible for the regulation tasks: organization of the timetables, harmonizing departure and arrival times between the different transportation modes, and the traveller info system, giving clienteles access to information and using a comprehensive set of information tools. As its shown in the following figure intermodal transport system connect between different transportation modes.
According to Kevin Lynch 1960 a highly imageable city is well shaped, contains different parts and it’s gradually distinguishable to anyone who has visited or lived. ”Imageability is associated to sense of place” Gorden Gullen (1961, p. 152) assure that a characteristic noticeable theme will contribute to a intelligible sense of place and will inspire people to enter and rest in the space which is the quality of a place that makes it recognizable and notable. A place has high imageability when specific physical features and their organization arouse distinct images or positive feelings, which are the number, composition, relationship, and variability of scale elements on building façade and with the pedestrian realm. Measured by vertical rhythm colors, objects, people, public art, outdoor dining all contribute to the complication of a street It’s probably not one else meant by itself that makes a street imageable but rather the combination of many. Imageability refers to the design of streets including the roadbed, sidewalks, landscape planting and the character of building façade or planted setback and these elements are important for street space design and its imageability.
Successful street space design balance between the design for pedestrian amenities such as benches and street trees with an understanding of the functional attractiveness of street and sidewalks. One of the important characters of sidewalk is the ” pedestrian path of travel”, the typical side walk has three zones: building zone, path of travel and curb zone as it’s shown in the following figure.