- Published: November 17, 2021
- Updated: November 17, 2021
- Language: English
- Downloads: 41
The question about femaleand male representation in the field of international relations is a verycontroversial issue. International? l r? lations (IR), has only r? cently m? de a pl? ce for f? male standp? int. It is import? ntto ch? nge the w? y in which the f? eld of internation? l relati? ns isconvention? lly construct? d and to r? examine thetraditi? nal boundari? s of the field. The internati? nal relati? ns field is f? rmed by the m? n`s knowledgeand experience.
This means that gender is a determin? nt of p? wer that sh? pes our kn? wledge andattitude to a certain sphere. Thus, g? nder is arelation? l conc? pt: masculin? ty and f? mininitydep? nd on each other for p? wer relati? nsconstruct? on. Manlin? ss has also been ass? ciated with v? olence and the us? of f? rce which areconsider? d to be the c? re characterist? cs of internati? nal relati? ns. In m? st fi? lds of kn? wledge, we have bec? me accust? med to equ? ting what ishum? nwith what is mascul? ne. Nowh? re is this m? re obvious than in internation? l relati? ns, a discipl? ne that b? ses its assumpt? ons andexplanat? ons alm? st entir? ly on the activiti? s and experienc? s of m? n.
Bycontrast, femin? st IR l? oksat IR through gender? d l? nses. F? minists generally def? ne g? nderas a vari? ble s? cialconstructi? n signify? ngun? qual power relati? ns. It is true that w? men areunderrepres? nted in all t? p-l? vel positi? ns in the Unit? d Stat? s and in the w? rld in g? neral. Th? yencount? r additi? nal difficulti? s in positi? ns h? ving to do withinternation? l relati? ns. Forexample, th? reare alm? st no l? galrestricti? ns in the US on wom? nyet wom? n compr? se lessth? n 20% of the US Congr? ss (Jacqui 2016). Historically, the f? reign p? licy is the ar? na of p? licy-mak? ng l? ast appropr? ate for wom? n. Dr? wing attenti? n to g? nder hi? rarchies thatprivil? gem? n, it is n? cessary to m? ke the w? men’s experienc? s v? sible to the w? rld.
The society should st? rt to talkopenly about this issue, otherwise, the marginalizati? n of wom? n in matt? rs relat? d tointernation? l relat? ons h? s no chances to change. The postm? dern frameallows the deconstructi? n of exist? ng g? nder identiti? s in IR. The w? man`sparticipati? n in internation? l negotiat? on and oth? r f? rms of d? cision- mak? ng proc? ss may add aposit? veel? mentof n? wnessto the fi? ld of IR. Ign? ring wom? n’s experienc? s contribut? s not only toth? irexclusi? n but also to a pr? cess ofself-selecti? n that r? sults in an overwhelm? ngly male p? pulation b? th in the f? reign pol? cy world and inthe academ? c field of internati? nal r? lations. Zalevski, Enloe, andTickner fare those sch? larswho by focus? ng on questi? nsof gend? r and internati? nalrelati? ns br? ught a c? mmoncommitm? nt to understand? nghow soc? al relati? ns ofmascul? nity and f? mininity, of g? nderidentiti? s and s? xualities, of g? nder differ? nce, are implic? tedin internati? nal polit? cs. In their work, Zalevski and Enloe (1995) rev? althe l? ck of attenti? n to b? th w? menand g? nder relati? ns in the br? ad r? ngeof internation? l polit? csfrom d? ily liv? d experi? nceto internati? nal instituti? ns.
Th? ir w? rkposes a v? ry simple but crucial question as “ wh? re are thew? men?” that chall? nge the tak? n-for-grant? d irrelev? nce of w? men in w? rld affa? rs. Tickn? r (1992), on the other h? nd, examin? s ch? ngesin IR and internati? nal p? liticsat the ? nd of the Cold War fr? m afemin? st perspect? ve. She cla? msthat m? n are associ? ted with defend? ng st? te wh? le wom? n h? ld more c? mforting rul? s such as m? thers, teach? rs, or social work? rs. I agree with her coreidea that w? menare b? ing prot? cted, but h? ve no s? y inh? w or und? r what conditi? ns(Tickner 1992). Many sch? lars h? ve already not? d th? t, giv? n our curr? nt technol? gies of destruct? on and the h? gh d? gree of ec? nomic in? quality and environm? ntal degradati? n that n? w ex? sts, we are desper? tely in n? ed of ch? nges in the way w? rld polit? cs is conduct? d. Since kn? wledge ab? ut the behavi? r of stat? s in the internation? l syst? m d? pends on assumpti? ns that c? me out of m? n’s experienc? s, it ignor? s a l? rge b? dy of hum? n experi? nce c? ming from wom? n.
The ch? nges in this situati? n could bring the range of opti? ns and op? n up n? w ways of think? ng.
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