- Published: September 3, 2022
- Updated: September 3, 2022
- University / College: Pennsylvania State University
- Language: English
- Downloads: 36
Table of Contents Introduction: 1 About the report 1 Body: 2 1. Positive impacts of tourism of a country: 2 1. 1. Economic impacts of the tourism: 2 1. 2. Social impacts of tourism: 4 1. 3. Environmental impacts of tourism: 4 2. The negative impacts of tourism of a country: 4 2. 1. Environmental impacts of tourism: 5 2. 2. Economic impacts of tourism: 5 2. 3. Political impacts of tourism: 6 Conclusion: 7 Introduction: Tourism is usually described as having three majortypes ofimpacts on many of the places which tourists visit. These effects are economic, environmental, and socio-cultural in nature and some people have mentioned political consequences also. However, some impacts have been attributed to tourism though they may in fact originate elsewhere. Instead, more appropriate sources may be the media, the advertising & fashion industries, new industrial development, urban, modern agriculture, mining and forestry projects, and government and military activity. But while all these factors can be described as frequent features of modern societies, it is widely believed that travel and tourism do generate impacts, including economic ones. Tourism is the largest industry in the world and the fact that it is still growing portrays a very bright future for the industry. Many countries have made billions out of this industry and are still earning more but to gain something, we have to lose something. In this essay I will discuss the effects of the tourism industry on the community taking into account important factors such as politics, economics, the environment and the historical factors. Tourism is the premier industry in many South Pacific countries. Not only does it bring a considerable amount of foreign currency, it also provides employment to many people. Its economic benefits are unquestionable but an over dependence on it may cause the downfall of other industries and the livelihood of the people associated with it. Many countries, especially developing countries with little ability to explore other resources, have taken up tourism as a way to improve the economy. However, as a result their survival often has become dependent on customary tourism revenue arrival. so this report is all about the economic social and environmental influences of tourism. 1. Positive impacts of tourism of a country 1. 1Economic Effects — Positive Tourism creates jobs, both through direct employment within the tourism industry and indirectly in sectors such as retail and transportation. When these people spend their wages on goods and services, it leads to what is known as the ” multiplier effect,” creating more jobs. The tourism industry also provides opportunities for small-scale business enterprises, which is especially important in rural communities, and generates extra tax revenues, such as airport and hotel taxes, which can be used for schools, housing and hospitals. Price and Income Elasticity Leisuretourism is considered to be price and income. Therefore, Price decreases and increases in destination countries (eg Thailand & Malaysia) are likely to, respectively, encourage or discourage some tourists from the traveller-generating countries (who would otherwise have visited) from coming. Similarly, income rises and income falls will have a parallel effect, Respectivelyencouraging or discouraging overseas visiting by citizens of the traveller-generating nations. The Economic Impacts of TouristsSpending The economic effects of visitorpresence at destinations arise from the fact that travellers and tourists spend their money on a wide variety of goods and services. This expenditure can be seen as an injection of financial resources into the host economy, thereby creating new levels of consumer demand. Foreign Exchange Foreign tourists change their foreign currency (usually a ‘hard’ or fully convertible one) into the local currency to pay for their tourism experience. As a result, the host country now has more foreign currency to spend on its own needs, such as providing better medical and educational facilities, and/or stimulating general economic development etc. At the same time, in balance of payments terms, tourism expenditure is viewed as being equivalent to export income for traveller-receiving countries, eg Thailand and Indonesia. Conversely, tourism expenditure amounts to an import cost for visitor-generating countries. Measuring Economic Impacts However, the measurement of the economic impacts of tourism is far more complicated than simply calculating the total amount of all such tourist expenditure, or their related receipts. Such calculations take no account of how much tourist expenditure leaks out of the economy either in payment for imported goods and services to satisfy tourist needs, or as taxes and savings. Nor does it account for how much additional expenditure is created through the cascading effect of money being re-spent again and again by different people and businesses throughout a particular economy. 1. 2 Social impact of tourism This chapter considers some of the social aspects of tourism in order to measure and understand the social impact. The main macro-level indicator isemployment created by the tourism economy for subregions and selected nations in Asia and the Pacific. The discussions cover the gender aspects of employment patterns in the tourism industry. There are various definitions of social development, and most of them converge around the concepts of improving the well-being of a country’s citizens, promoting higher standards of living, increasing employment and creating conditions of economic and social progress. Employment is one of the most readily available indicators to begin measuring the social impact of tourism, since job creation generally helps create the opportunities for better standards of living and related conditions of socio-economic progress. Tourism contributes significantly, both directly and indirectly, to the creation of employment. In 2006, the tourism economy (direct plus indirect contribution) provided jobs for about 140 million people in the selected subregions and countries of the Asian and Pacific region, representing an average of 8. 9 per cent of total employment. As shown in table 8, tourism employment in North-East Asia was estimated at 87. 7 million jobs, which was 10. 1 per cent of the total employment in the subregion. This result can be attributed mainly to China, where 77. 6 million people, approximately 1 in every 10 employed persons worked in the tourism economy. In Oceania, the workforce in the tourism economy accounted for 14. 5 per cent of total employment in the sub region, which was 1 in every 6. 9 jobs. The importance of tourism becomes more significant when the workforce ratios in selected Pacific island. 1. 3Environmental Effects of tourism Tourism — particularly nature and ecotourism — helps promote conservation of wildlife and natural resources such as rain forests, as these are now regarded as tourism assets. It also helps generate funding for maintaining animal preserves and marine parks through entrance charges and guide fees. By creating alternative sources of employment, tourism reduces problems such as over-fishing and deforestation in developing nations. 2. The negative impacts of tourism of a country 2. 1Economic Effects — Negative Successful tourism relies on establishing a basic infrastructure, such as roads, visitor centers and hotels. The cost of this usually falls on the government, so it has to come out of tax revenues. Jobs created by tourism are often seasonal and poorly paid, yet tourism can push up local property prices and the cost of goods and services. Money generated by tourism does not always benefit the local community, as some of it leaks out to huge international companies, such as hotel chains. Destinations dependent on tourism can be adversely affected by events such as terrorism, natural disasters and economic recession. 2. 2Social Effects — Negative Visitor behavior can have a detrimental effect on the quality of life of the host community. For example, crowding and congestion, drugs and alcohol problems, prostitution and increased crime levels can occur. Tourism can even infringe on human rights, with locals being displaced from their land to make way for new hotels or barred from beaches. Interaction with tourists can also lead to an erosion of traditional cultures and values. But in spite of the undeniable social-cultural impulse that these positive aspects represent, it is not necessary to forget that a negative impact also exists. The first remarkable negative aspect is the social differences between local population and visitors. In certain destinies, mainly in those of the most underprivileged countries, the call developing countries, the residents get to become true servants of the tourists. This creates between the local people certain resentment towards the visitors and appears areas of social tension. Thus the tourism establishes the bases of a new form of colonialism based on the foreign currency dependency As far as external workers occupy the jobs, the uses that they require greater qualification, being left the repaid works worse for the local population. As a result of the indicated socioeconomic differences it appears what more negative of the tourism can be considered like the social impact: the increase of prostitution, the game, the drugs, in general criminal aspects that never had arisen without the appearance of the visitors. Once again this circumstance is more frequent in the developing countries (Every day the tourist supply more is diversified. To the cultural tourism and of sun and beach, that in principle were most frequent, other alternatives are added such as the tourism of adventure, the one of businesses and congresses, the linguistic and educative tourism, tourism of thematic parks, etc. They are the sexual tourism and the one of drugs.) The tourism also can cause a des-culture of the destiny. The local population like superior considers the culture of the tourists. Of this form the indigenous cultures try to adapt to the customs of the visitors and they are possible to be ended up destroying the elements that at their moment represented greater the attractiveness for the tourist. 2. 3Environmental Effects — Negative Tourism poses a threat to a region’s natural and cultural resources, such as water supply, beaches, coral reefs and heritage sites, through overuse. It also causes increased pollution through traffic emissions, littering, increased sewage production and noise. Conclusion: Tourism is a fast growing industry and a valuable sector, contributing significantly to the economy. Tourism affects the economy and lives of communities and has proven to be a lifesaver for many destinations. There are real and perceived fears that are sometimes attributed to tourism and largely related to poorly managed or mass tourism ventures. As with any economic activity, tourism can have negative impacts on communities. These must be minimized and measured against the benefits that tourism brings. There is some concern that tourism development may lead to destinations losing their cultural identity by catering for the perceived needs of tourists — particularly from international markets. This is based on theobservations of other “ destinations” having compromised their sense of identity. However, research shows that most tourists travel, not to visit home away from home, but because they want to experience the personality and true character of towns, communities and attractions. The tourism experience is different to what they can see or do at home and this includes experiencing the real life and lifestyle of the destinations they visit. Sustainable tourism is thoughtful tourism. It is “ derived, ” not “ contrived. ” A community involved in the planning and implementation of tourism has a more positive attitude, is more supportive and has better chance of making a profit than a population passively ruled — or overrun — by tourism. One of the core elements of sustainable tourism development is community development. This is giving the community the process and capacity to make decisions that consider the long-term economy, ecology and equity of all communities.
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