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Western Civilization 24 November 2007 2. The Thirty Years War is a major war that occurred in Germany during the first half of the seventeenth century. It lasted from between 1618 and 1648. This war had many causes, including religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics, and power struggles between European Powers, such as France, the Hapsburg Empire, Sweden, and The Dutch Republic. This war caused massive levels of destruction and death in Germany and the current Czech Republic. There were many causes of the war. In 1555 the Peace of Augsburg was signed. This treaty ended earlier hostilities between Protestants and Catholics, but it was not obeyed seriously by either side, and troubles between the two started up again. Spain and France were both interested in seizing German territory so that they would gain wealth and protect themselves from each other. Sweden and Denmark also had territorial ambitions in Germany. The first part of the war was the Bohemian Revolt. This lasted from 1618 to 1620. It started when Protestants attacked Catholic dignitaries in the Second Defenestration of Prague. Spain entered the war on the side of the Catholics, and the Protestants were defeated at Sablat after early successes. Saxony joined the war on the Catholic side, and after the Battle of White Mountain, the Protestant Revolts were suppressed, and Bohemia became Catholic. The Catholics successfully advanced into the Palatine in the Palatine phase of this war. The rebellion seemed to be over. In 1625, Denmark intervened on the side of the Protestants. This was unsuccessful. In 1629, Denmark signed the Treaty of Lubeck and left the war. In 1630, Sweden entered the war to aid the Protestants. The Swedish forces, led by Gustavus Adolphus, were successful, and much of the territories that were lost to the Catholics were regained. However, after Adolphuss death, the Swedes were defeated, and the Peace of Prague was negotiated. This treaty forbade German states from forming alliances with each other, or with foreign powers. This treaty formalized some Spanish gains, and France then attacked the Hapsburgs to reduce their influence. The Swedes and the Dutch joined them. At first the Spanish were successful, but they finally suffered several major defeats, and the all of the nations involved in the war began to work for peace. In 1648, the Peace of Westphalia was signed, ending the War. The results of this treaty were that the Peace of Augsburg was to be seriously respected, and all Christians could practice their own type of denomination privately. Calvinsim was legally recognized. France, Sweden and Prussia received new territories. After this treaty and war, most nations shied away from interfering in the domestic affairs of another nation.
4. The Scientific Revolution was a series of intellectual changes that took place in Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. These changes included the replacement of the geocentric theory by the heliocentric theory, the replacement of Aristotelianist theories of matter by the theories of the atom and multiple elements, the replacement of earlier theories of movement by the theory of gravity, the idea of inertia, the mechanical philosophy, and Harveys theory of the circulation of blood. Copernicus discovered the heliocentric theory of the universe. This idea challenged the thought that the earth was the center of the universe, and this led to much further questioning of established theories and dogma. Kepler formed an idea of planetary motion that relied on elliptical paths instead of circular ones. This challenged ideas of divine perfection and harmony. Newton is responsible for the Theory of Gravity, the Laws of Motion in classical mechanics, and both he and Euler developed Calculus independently. Physicians Andreas Vesalius and William Harvey both performed dissections that disproved Galens views on medicine and the structure of the human body. Descartes formed a theory of deductive reasoning, a theory of rationalism and a mechanical philosophy that denied that physical objects, plants, and animals had any spiritual powers or souls. Galileo Galilei produced powerful telescopes that discovered the moons of Jupiter and the phases of Venus. This work helped confirm the heliocentric theory. Sir Francis Bacon did many scientific experiments, did inductive reasoning, and formed theories that formally separated religion from philosophy. Antony van Leeuwenhoek developed powerful microscopes and provided important knowledge about microbiology. After the Scientific Revolution, the way that most Europeans looked at the world had changed greatly.
Atkinson, Chris. The Thirty Years War. 14 Dec. 2005. Chris Atkinson. 24 Nov. 2007 http://www. pipeline. com/~cwa/TYWHome. htm
Chambers, et al. The Western Experience: Volume 2 – Since the Sixteenth Century. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.
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